Cragg

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The Cragg family, based in Wyresdale, were educated Quakers who kept a diary covering the period from around 1706 to 1816 (with gaps). Much of the information is concerned with local events and characters but often within a National context. There appears to be several copies of this document with one, held in the Lancashire Archives, with the reference DDX/760/1.The Society of Friends seem to be the holders of many of the (original) manuscripts.

Another transcribed version of the diary is to be found in the Record Society of Lancashire & Cheshire Vol 142 published in 2006. The author, Katrina Navickas, puts most of the information into the context of Quakers in North-East Lancashire. It is a recommended read since there are numerous interesting footnotes.

Timothy Cragg (1736-1828) and David Cragg (1769-1835) produced the original "Memorandum" transcribed below.

David Cragg eventually emigrated to Canada and continued to write a diary. This was published in 1977 by G. Fandrew

Timothy Cragg wrote a short biography.

The Kelsall family married into the Cragg family and they too created a Kelsall Diary. A photocopy can be found at Lancashire Archive DDX/760/2.

"The Water Spinners" by C. Aspin (Helmshore Local History Society) might be an interesting book. LA Search Room LM31/ASP


Cragg Family of Ortner

Pre-1706

February. On the 11th a great fire in Lancaster which burned down about 20 houses

October. Great Storm. On the 3rd & 4th days at night the greatest mind blew that had been known for a long time. A great quantity of thatch blown off. Some barns blown down, some by the roots & others broken. On the night of the 3rd the sea broke into the land & some ships were driven ashore. The low parts of the country were overflowed. It was the second day of the spring flood tides. On the 7th there was the greatest flood in the Wyre known for a long time & most of the foot bridges were washed down.

September. A great flood on the 20th took much corn down the river Lune.

November:- It was reported that on the 26th & 27th of this month much damage was done by wind at London, Bristol, Plymouth, Yarmouth & also at sea.


1706

June. A great Flood. On the 18th there was the greatest flood in the becks on the North side of the Wyre that hath been known in our time. The most of the Bridges over the Wyre were washed down, such as Hathornthwaite Havess, Leigh Bridge & Durnshaw Bridge. A great quantity of fences were washed down much corn & grass flooded.

1708

April. French Invasion. It was said that on the morning of the 9th the French set sail from Dunkirk on behalf of the Prince of Wales with an intention to land in the North of Great Britain & it was afterwards reported that on the 15th, 16th & 17th the British Fleet fought them. They were reported to have 40 men of war & privateers & 200 transport ships but the news being uncertain about the fight we know not what to believe. However it was said that the[y] returned to France.

December. Murder. On the 14th inst, Thomas Mashiter of Marshaw murdered a man, that was an old man and a po[a]cher? a man whose name was Christopher Erwin and buried him in his stable & paved it over, and he put him in the hole on his head. On the 17th I heard that the old man was wanting and I was so concerned in in much and went to John Hathorn: of Catshaw to consult with him and upon consideration we sent a messenger to Marshaw to enquire into the matter and messenger hearing some suspicious talk are (to wit) John Hathornthwaite, Robert Bond, Joshua Hodgson and I went to Marshaw about day going, and having two constables with is (to wit) Joshua Hodgson & Edward Winder of Hathornthwaite we raised the neighbours as we went and when we came there the said Thomas Mashiter was gone, but the neighbours told us that the said Mashiter had been paving in his stable some days ago and we searched under the pavement and found the body of the old man put into an hole with the head downwards & we pulled him out. We sent men from Winbrook into Bolland and he was taken at Newton (to wit) the said Mashiter and was carried before justice Parker of Browsholme, who sent him to Lancaster Castle, and when the said Mashiter was taken he had the old man's goods with him. He was taken the same night.


1714

August. It is said that on the 1st Queen Anne died and presently after Duke George of Brunswick in Germany was proclaimed King of England.


1715

January Note. In these days from January 1st to March 28th was reckoned in neither or both years this 1714-15 the style was altered in 1752 and every month began 11 days earlier afterwards, as the 1st of January was formerly the 22nd of December.

February. Great Storm. On the first day between the hours of 11 & 2 in the day-time there rose a West South-West a most dreadful wind, which was over a great part of Lancashire & some part of Yorkshire if not further which did an abundance of harm in thatch, slate & overturning houses. It was so terrible that some people left their houses & put the fires out for fear of them falling on their heads.

July. About this time there was a great uneasiness in the nation and many Presbyterian Meeting House pulled down in several parts of the nation. It was reported that several were killed about it. It was said that at Oxford some mischief was done to one of our meeting houses & there was a tale of the Prince of Wales coming.

October. At this time there was it said men in arms in Scotland for King James's son, headed by one Earl of Mar & that they had taken Aberdeen.

Scotch Invasion. November. On the 7th there came into Lancaster an Army of Highlanders and Northumberland gentry & others. They proclaimed James King of England and an abundance of Gentry and others of the Church of Rome flocked to them & so they went on to Preston & took many men's horses. And at Preston on the 12th of this month they fought as also on the 13th and 14th days with some troops of King George's and the troopers overcame them & took as some said above 2000 prisoners but when they came to Lancaster they were thought to be but 1600. There was as some said, slain on both sides above 100. The gentry they took, to go to London with them and some of them to Lancaster & it was said to York and Chester. They then plundered several Papist houses & then there was some little quietness.

It was said that the Duke of Argyle and the Earl of Mar fought on the 13th and 14th of this month and Argyle got the day. This battle was fought in Scotland. When the above Army came to Lancaster the Country were sore frightened and hid an abundance of their best goods. The above said battle at Preston was fought in the Town & them of the Papist party would not come out. There was one Foster made their General, and there was a man whose style was Darrenwater, both of Northumberland and Dalton of Thurnham & many others. The said Foster was said to be a Protestant. They took an abundance of Prisoners & it was afterwards reported that there was above 120 slain on the Kings party.

December. It is said that in the beginning of this month he that was called James (King James's son) was in Scotland, but things not going well on his side he went back again, but whither not known.

1716

January. It is said that James at this time was in Scotland with Mar & they were providing to fight him. There was at this time an Assize at Liverpool to try those who were taken at the Preston fight, and the Lords who went to London were called before the Parliament that was then sitting.

On the 28th there was 5 men put away at Preston for rising in arms, some of whom I knew. About the 9th February the Assizes at Liverpool broke up. It was said there was above 60 men condemned to die & several were executed at Preston, Wigan & Manchester. The news said that about this time James & Mar fled from Argyle & would not stand [and] fight. They took shipping & got into France. There was some men executed at Lancaster and there was some hundreds of prisoners in Lancaster Castle who submitted to the King's mercy.

It was said in this month that James went back from Scotland to France & Mar's army was scattered & that some of the Lords taken at Preston were put to death in London. Of them that was put to death in this Country there was at each town a head set up.

May. About this time they were trying the gentlemen that rose in arms in London. Several were condemned to die.

September. In this month there was an Assize at Preston to try those who rose in Arms the last year & some of them were put to death at Lancaster.


1717

March. At this time there was a great talk of a plot & that was discovered for bringing in some swords to assist James.

December. On the 31st in the afternoon Christopher Parkinson who was born at over Leigh went over at Ward Stone to go to Harper Beck & had a daughter with him but she died before she reached the far end. There had been much snow and frost on the 30th.


1719

April. This spring there was much talk of the Spaniards invading this Land & in the latter end of this month it was said there was some persons landed in the north west of Scotland who were against this Government.

Very large gap in the diary…….

1781

January. On the 6th news came of the great Hurricane in the West Indies at Barbados. Not one house standing. On the 14th news came of the French landing at Jersey & all killed or taken prisoners.

February. 2nd the day appointed for the trial of Lord George Gordon.

7th. Joseph Parkinson stopped payment. His household goods sold on the 14th.

March 17th. News came of Adm. Rodney taking Estatia? Saba? & St. Martin belonging to the Dutch & 10 ships in harbour & a fleet of 30 merchant ships & 64 all taken valued at £2,000,000.

31st. News came of the taking of the Ad. Rodney privateer of Lancaster

April 8th. Went to Lancaster for Firs [Fairs]. The old Town's Hall all down the Bullen market in the Spring Garden st.

17th. The Cuckoo heard for the first time this year.

June 4th. Lancaster people rode the Boundaries.

11th. The races. 2 sweepstakes for aged horses. Mr Hall's horse got the plate. 12th Cliftons horse surrey. Shepsted's Mountain Newshams Jenny Surry got the plate & Clifton the stakes.

Mountain Newshams Jenny. Surry got the Plate & Clifton the stakes.

July. The General meeting on the 15th. The first year it was altered many people there.

August 11th. At night a Scot killed by lightning in Quernmore Park.

19th. Lancaster General Meeting

October 4th. John Eshtown. Sale of the whole apple tree.

November 10th. News came of General Arnold burning near London.

December 26th. John Sandwal Sale of Scorton Hall.

1782

January 19th. News came of the French taking St Martins.

February 2nd. Took Lawrence Hardmans Estate for £32 per year now in possession [of] James Myerscough.

April 20th. Saturday. On this day John David Hunt was hanged at Lancaster for forgery.

1787

A list of Books which were commenced reading July 26th.

Parthenissa. A Romance.

The LIfe of Frederick III. King of Prussia. 1 little volume.

Atlas minimus illustratus, or a deal in a little. An account of all the world.

The memoirs of General Fairfax.

The history of that arch Pirate Tulagee Augrice.

The Devil upon two sticks.

The sige of Gibraltar by S. Ausel.

Memoirs of Charles Frederick the 3rd King of Prussia & a geographical description of his dominions by S. Johnson.

Martial Field Europe by A Boyer.

Sir Charles Beaufort. A novel. 2 vols.

The Dean of Coleraine. 3 vols.

The Roman History. Vol 4.

Tatler. Vol 1.

The French Convert.

Athens. Ancient & Modern.

Smollets continuation of the History of England. Vol 3.

Economy of Human Life.

Ovid Methamorposis.

Batchelor of Salemanca

Guardian. 2 vols.

The life of Wm Edmondson A friend.

Peter Quarl Life & Advantures.

Joseph Andrews.

Rd Davis a friend.

John Richardson a friend.

July 25th. The factory weir burst by a great flood.

August 10th. The greatest flood in the memory of man. Sparrowgill flowed over the Bridge. Damas Gill overflowed much land & washed a deal of hay away. The Wyre washed the Company's weir out & the factory weir fender Mouth & 30 yds of earth & did a deal of damage besides.

October. On the 28th was a bigger flood than the one of August 10th. The Wyre was 1½ ft higher perpendicular. It overflowed much land & did a great deal of damage. It washed the Lee Bridge down which is a Hundred Bridge & the Abystead Bridge, a foot bridge. Stairs bridge was washed down & some of the Wing wall at Dolphinholme Bridge & the Street bridge was greatly damaged.

December 9th. A flood in the Wyre wore a hole 6 ft deep under the factory weir & stopped the spinning for 2 days.

1788

May. On the 12th Lancaster people rode the Boundaries. There was 43 horsemen & 3 or 4 score foot men. They had 3 colours & a drum, a fife, a bassoon, a hautboy & a french horn.

July 11th. News came that Lawrence Hardman has lost his trial about the stable ake which after a trial of 8 hours was given against him. It was tried at the York Assizes. At these assizes a man was sentenced to be transported to Botany Bay for stealing a bushel of corn.

On the 19th there was a very great flood in the Langdin & Hodder in Bowland. One man lost 3 acres of hay save only 1 cock. He had offered to get it the day before but thought it was rather too soft & left it for another day, but it was all but 1 cock washed away. On the 25th a man made his escape out of Lancaster Castle. He pretended to be ill & his irons were taken off. It was thought he had got over the walls by the aid of ropes & has not yet been found. He was put in the Castle for breaking into a shop in Lancaster & stealing there from some ribbons.

31st. The man that escaped out of Lancaster Castle on the 25th was taken again at Kirkby Stephen and as they were bringing him to Lancaster Castle again, when they came to a wood at the side of the road the man wanted to do his business, but instead of that he got through the hedge and into the wood and his guard alighted off their horses (there was but 2 at the most & some said only 1) and ran after him through the wood and through the wood hey lads hey. He then saw to where the horses were and mounted the better and rode away - fare you well and thank you. He has since sent the horse back from Otley.

August 23rd. Lawrence Herdman has sold his estate at Greenbank to Thomas Bateson for £1120 & has advertised his other 2 estates, one at Hare? Appletree & the other at Morehead to be sold on September 20th.

November. On the 5th there was a great Bonfire at Ortner & upwards of 40 people present. They had 3 muskets & shot very often & a drum, a fife, & 2 hunting horns & shouted & hollered & fought with fiery sticks. Several people were burnt & hurt.

In October or November the King of England became melancholy, or insane, or stark mad, however he was deprived of his reason & there are many doctors attending him but at the end of the year he was no better.

A list giving the number of Bankrupts from the year 1740.

Lancaster in 1784 contained 1783 houses & 8000 & some odds inhabitants besides boarders & sailors.

Greenbank vaccary in 1788 contained 12 houses & 72 inhabitants.

In the latter end of the year my father took of[f] Thomas Richmond all his land at Greenbank at the yearly rent of £17. The landlord to set 10/- worth of lime on each year and to build a barn the first year. Taking for 21 years, to enter on the 12th February 1789. To plough none before it be limed & not to plough more than 3 acres per year. The whole is about 24 acres of arable , meadow and pasture land. The name of the fields is as follows:- Infall or meadow, Pit field, Mean, Little field, Great field, Barley Brow, Brownfall or Wingbrow, Holm, Little Crown fall or little wing brow, Horsefield or Coppys & Moss field. After that Thomas Richmond sold the house & barn, gardens & croft to Thomas Bateson for £100 & now the rest is to be £15 & all to be as was before but a bigger Barn to be built.

1789

January. The newspapers bring dreadfull accounts of the severity of the frost & snow from all parts of Europe. Several old people say that they never remembered to have seen so rough a day as the 13th January. A rag gatherer was lost in the snow at Cockerham. Several others were lost but were found alive.

March. On Sunday the 22nd there was a terrible fire at Garstang which burnt down 4 dwelling houses besides barns & stables & 300 yards of hay. A very good horse worth £25 was so much burnt that died soon after and a sow & pigs were burnt to death.

The King got quite well in the beginning of this month & there was great rejoicing throughout the nation.

The newspapers bring account of the great quantity of snow fallen about the 13th of March.

The Assizes commenced at Lancaster on the 31st of March and on that day Lawyer Postlethwaite dropped dead in the Court. The Assizes ended on April 9th. 21 prisoners were tried & several were found guilty & are to be transported to Botany Bay.

May. There was snow to be seen on the Fells on the 4th May, the last remains of the great drifts. Snow has lain on the Fells since December 26th 1788 a period of 130 days.

On Monday, the 4th of May at night the shop belonging to Edward Richardson, at Caton was broken into and goods to the value of £80 or £100 stolen, particularly £15 worth of ribbons, check, silk, muslin, & waistcoat pieces, all the tea in the shop and every portable thing. The thieves had sawn a hole through the door. On the next day some people came through Wyresdale & into Bowland to search for the thieves and at the Sykes they called to get something to drink and to enquire after the rogues. There were several clothiers and a stocking seller with bags like as Scotchmen use & when they enquired of him he made a wonder of it and said among other things "bye, all the rogues are not hanged yet" and some of the house folk observed that he changed colour. However they that were searching went forward without suspecting him to Newton and Slaidburn and were coming back again when they met the clothiers. The clothiers that they had a suspicion of the stocking man so the searchers came & brought the constable with them to the Sykes and he was there & had been there all the while although they had been away four hours. The[y] searched his bags and instead of stockings they found fine velveret waistcoat pieces & muslin (but not a quarter of what was stolen out of the shop) and in the bottom of his bags the[y] found 2 loaded pistols and 2 very sharp knives & saws, chisels, picklocks and everything belonging to House breaking. They then brought him to Lancaster Castle.

August 22nd. There is scarcily anything talked of at present but the lawsuit between the Hathornthwaite and Cawthorne about Hunting & coursing & Davis, Cawthorne's gamekeeper shooting Mr Hathornthwaite's dogs by Cawthorne's orders.

The judges came into Lancaster today. Their names are Wilson & Thompson.

On the 26th the trial between Mr Hathornthwaite & Mr Cawthorne came on. The part of the case tried was about Davis & Cawthorne shooting 3 of Mr Hathornthwaite's dogs when he was hunting, but the dogs were not at full chase when they were shot. The trial came on at a quarter to five and ended at 7 o'clock when Mr Hathornthwaite got the Trial and £20 damages. It appeared in the trial that Mr Cawthorne nor anybody else has a right to shoot or destroy any person's dog whatever. Counsel for Cawthorne, Mr Chambers and Mr Jofrin. For Mr Hathornthwaite, Mr Lair, Mr Haywood, Mr Wood and Mr Cockin. The last mentioned is the best pleader I ever heard.

On the same say was tried a bloody villain named Kester Hartley, a young man about 20 years of age for murdering his sweetheart, one Hannah Corbridge. He first gave her poison and then cut her throat in a most dreadful manner. After a trial of 8 or 10 hours he was found guilty and is to be hanged on the 28th of this month.

The Assizes ended on the 27th. 12 prisoners were tried. 3 were condemned to be hanged, 1 brought in special, some to be transported & some acquitted.

On the 30th of October was such a storm at sea as has not been these many years & a great number of ships lost and me. The town of Shields lost in this storm no less than 400 seamen.

On December 28th the Clubmen walked at Lancaster. There are 11 clubs and above 1000 members.

1791

January 3rd. Thomas Bamber took a large deal back from Ortner for the long bridge above Cowmill?. It was 53 1/2 feet long & above a foot square.

Of the morning of the 10th, Stephen Jackson of Galgate died very suddenly. He was in perfect health when he went to bed. At 10 clock he began to be ill and died at 5 o'clock. He was an eminent mast shoemaker as any in this County. He was a very cheerfull, good humoured man, but he has left behind him the worst natured wife that ever existed. He was buried at Cockerham on the 12th.

Horse Tax. Almost the whole talk hereabouts is about the Horse tax which was laid on in 1784, but people not paying, (only 3 in Wyresdale) the Commissioners have sent papers out to every person that keeps a horse or horses must pay or appeal. Most people in Wyresdale are for appealing & get off if they can. The appeal day is the 22nd of this month. The man who has done this food deed is James Hinde of Lancaster, an ill _____. They are not only to pay for the time to come for also for last year. The tax of 10/- per annum and the Parliament have laid another shilling on so that they will be 11/- a year each horse. On the 22nd, appeal day at Preston, all the farmers in the Hundred went to appeal, but only 1 Township got done which was Forton and most of them got off. When the rest of the farmers saw they could not get to appeal soon they all gave 3 loud huzza's, at which the justices were much frightened and sent a man down to see what was the matter & they said that they only wanted James Hinde, who was so frightened that he was almost at crying. The Justices & Commissioners then ordered all the farmers to go home and they would send for them when they wanted them. The justices hocrited? James Hinde severely for being so busy. The appeal day at Lancaster is put off until the 28th February & is to be on several days. Wyresdale is to be on March 5th.

Great Side. On Thursday the 6th of January was the greatest and highest tide ever remembered. It came a great height upon the Dykes in Cockerham, and at Lancaster it run through the higher set of arches of the new Bridge. It is said the great arches were quite filled. It covered the Quay & washed many boats on but did no material damage the people being aware of it, it having run very high the 2 tides before. At Pilling Lane end it had washed a fine new dyke down and a great many sheep were drowned. It is perhaps the greatest tide that has been since the 18th & 19th December 1720 when it washed down several houses & parts of houses & drowned 7 or 8 persons and about 20 Beasts & Horses & many sheep. Some people were forced to get on to the rautle? trees and staid there 2 days and 2 nights.

Funeral of Stephen Townley.

On the Wednesday, the 12th of January, Stephen Townley was buried at Cockerham. When they brought the corpse out of the Church is was quite dark and most terrible mud & rain & those who were carrying fell & the coffin tumbled out of the Bier & would have been burst but as it was very firm, being good oak. They then carried it in cords to the grave which was very deep & when they had put the coffin into the grave 2 great head stones which stood at each end of the grave fell in upon the coffin and they had never like to have got them out again. It blew the lanterns out as fast as they could light them.

February 12th. There is a great famine of firing at this time all over the Country, but at the Morehead and Lancaster in particular. Turf they have none and coals they can get none at any price. The coal flats from Wigan have been expected this fortnight. They arrived on the 21st. Country coals were 2/- per load & when the fleet came they dropped to 1/-.

The Thames on the 1st February rose to an amazing height. At about half past one in the afternoon the water was fully 12 inches higher than it had been for 29 years past. New Palace yard and Westminster Hall were actually overflowed and the Lawyers were conveyed to and from the Courts in boats. This has happened several times before. viz in the year 1235, 1730, Feb 9th 1735, Dec 24th 1736, Oct 14th 1747 and Feb 9th 1762. The whole of Milbank Row, Vine Street & Market Street were overflowed so that boats came into them. Thr meadows & fields from thence up to Ranelagh & Chelsea were laid under water. The waters rose through the shores & overflowed Privy Gardens, a great part of Scotland Yard & some part of St James Park. The cellars & kitchens in the neighbourhood were nearly all filled with water. The damage done on both sides of the river in warehouses & on the wharves is immense. They were overflowed almost without exception.

Horse Tax. On the 28th February, the appeal day at Lancaster about the Horse Tax, and 5 Townships were there that day, which were Ashton, Arram, Bare & two others. They all came & several more. They had got some attorneys to plead for them which they did effectually, for the Commissioners or more particularly James Hinde had not gone according to law in any respect so they would be forced to drop it. In the meantime the Country people began to be rather colypert? & assembled to gather in great crowds & began to Huzza & shouted "No Hinde" "No Horse Tax" & after a while they got a pair of colours (these that Warren & Dent had at the last Election) and carried them about Hurraing, heaving up their hats & shouting "No Hinde". They went to the New Inn where the Commissioners were & the Commissioners ordered the Landlord to go & shut the gates who told them he durst not, they then ordered another man to go and he did so. There being many people on both sides & when they were tired with shouting they wanted the gates opening which the man who had shut them refused to do. The people immediately seized him, got him down & hailed him about & almost tore all the clothes off him. They then burst open the gates & searched over the House for Hinde but found him not for he was got out at a window & gone. The Commissioners were frightened & thought it proper to let it drop and Justice Rigby (one of them) came out, pulled off his hat & shouted with them & told them all was over & they might go home for they could not make them pay.

May 28th. A young horse belonging to George Edkin in Ellel had its tongue cut out by some person in spite against its owner.

Man Drowned. On the 29th a man was drowned in the Lune at Caton whilst bathing. His name was ___ [*George*] Chambers & he was employed in the Factory as a mule spinner. He leaves a wife & 3 small children & had he lived until the 1st day of June they would have had £8 out of the Caton Club to bury him with. [*Birth - John Chambers (6th March 1785) son of George & Mary Chambers, Thomas (17 Dec 1786), Peggy (20 Sept 1789) - Marriage George Chambers & Mary Parkinson both of the parish of St Paul, Caton - 2 Aug 1784*]

June. Club Walks. On Monday the 13th the Lancaster Club Walking took place. They walked from Dalton Square to the Church 4 abreast & there was 1244 in 11 clubs or societies.

July. Suicide. On Friday the 1st July, Janet Winder, a young woman & sister to Thomas Winder of Stonehead in Lower Wyresdale drowned herself in the Wyre near St Michaels below Garstang. It is said that she has been off her reason at times for some years & low spirited ever since the marriage of John Jackson of Lentworth, he having courted her at that very time. It is a pity she should have had a mind of such a worthless fellow as he is. She was buried on the 3rd.

On Saturday the 25th of June one Edmond Myster of Scotforth got up betimes in the morning & went into a barn & there hanged himself. He had been in a desponding way a long time and afraid of being starved to death of want although he was in moderate circumstances. A very ill natured man. The Coroner verdict. Lunatic.

Canal. 7th . All the talk hearabouts is of the making a navigable canal from Kendal to Preston to go by Lancaster which has been in agitation some time. They are for getting an Act of Parliament as soon as possible next session. It is 44 miles from Kendal to Preston and it is said the canal will cost £1000 per mile only.

9th. All the talk hearabouts is changed from making Canals to another affair of an oppressive nature to all who are not Freemen of Lancaster. There is one Mr Sharples of Lancaster, a Farmer and he has houses and land in the town but is not a freeman of the town. The Corporation make these who are not Freemen pay what they call stalling money if they set up any trade. Now this stalling is no settled thing, but the[y] make the people pay just what they think fit, sometimes 4 or 5 shillings & sometimes more. Mr Sharples paid for some years, but the last 3 years he has refused because he thought they imposed upon him. He only paid 5/- a year but they raised it to 10/- & this year to 15/- so he would not pay. They took him & put him in the Black Hole at the Town Hall & there he stayed some days & nights but now he is only a prisoner at large. There is one Bradshaw of Halton Hall will try titles with the Corporation about it, he having persuaded Sharples to stand out so it is believed. The day after Sharples was taken he brought 15 horses to Sharples's office & he was in prison & could not be seen. Many other people came & wanted him but he could do nothing. There will be one or two assize trials about it.

Riot. Extracts from a letter from Birmingham, July 15th, 1791. On Monday last in consequence of an advertisement for a Public dinner in commemoration of the Franch Revolution, at the Hotel in this town, on the 14th inst. a number of riotous people assembled & broke all the windows at the Hotel, pulled down and burnt both Presbyterian Meeting Houses, also Dr Priestley's house, furniture, Library & Philosophical apparatus. The riot continued for 3 or 4 days and did and infinite deal of damage in Birmingham & adjacent places. The damage is reckoned at £400,000. They have destroyed 3 meeting Houses & 9 other Houses all belonging to the Dissenters. One Mr Rylands house was burnt to the ground. A deal of the mob got into cellars & drunk there until the House fell upon them & killed 20 of them. Some killed & some burnt to death. The mob did not give over until the military arrived when quiet was soon restored. The inhabitants were greatly frightened and all business was stopped. They are now taking the Rioter up and sending them to Warwick assizes for trial.

The anniversary of the French Revolution was held at the Crown & Anchor Tavern in London when above 1000 gentlemen attended. The utmost harmony & good humour prevailed.

Large Oak. Measure & particulars of a large Oak tree fallen the last month in the park of Sir John Rushout Bart at Northwick near Blockley Worcestershire judged to be about 300 years old which is perfectly sound & very fine timber.

Girth at 5ft from the ground 21 feet Smallest Girth 18 feet Length of Branches 30 feet Solid contents of the body 634 feet Estimated timber in the arms 200 feet Supposed to be worth 834 feet & 2/- per foot - £83 - 8s 0d

Firewood - £6 - 6s 0d Bark - £5 - 5s 0d

£94 - 19s - 0d

July 23rd. Dr Sharples, farrier is bailed although Lancaster would take no bail. They were offered £2000 for bail which they would not take, so he would go to York to the judge there & as they would not hinder him he went with his guard & some friends and there the judges took bail, himself in £40 and 2 others in £20 each so he came back and is at liberty till the assized. The Lancaster Corporation is much mortified at his bailing. They hoped when he went that he might be put in prison at York.

Catshaw. This summer there were 4 new houses built at Catshaw Factory. [*These were burnt down about 1850 or 1851*]

Flood. July 28th. At Lancaster there has been so great a flood these 20 years (but one) it filled the streets from side to side. At Kellet there was scarcely any rain, and at Cockerham none at all. Note:- The other great flood at Lancaster that was greater than this is about 6 years since. It then filled the streets from side to side and about Stone well it got in at House doors & windows & washed pans off fires & did much damage & washed pavements & roads up etc.

September. The assizes commenced at Lancaster on the 5th . One Davis was sentenced to be hanged for stealing a horse. He came from Manchester & stole the horse in Cheshire. 3 other persons were condemned to death, some were to be transported & some were acquitted. One of the condemned prisoners found means to hang himself and was nearly dead when found, but after every known means had been tried he recovered. When he was coming to himself he made such an uncommon hideous noise that all the people were frightened almost out of their wits. He was heard quite outside the Castle. On the same day another of the condemned men hung himself up but was found before he was far gone. They are now chained in such a manner that they cannot hang themselves again.

October. Execution. On Saturday the 1st there were 2 men hanged viz Robert Davis for Horse stealing & another for House breaking. They were very hardened & seemed to have no sense of their deplorable situation. There should have been another hanged but he cheated them, for in the morning when they had knocked his irons off, they left him to his devotions by himself and he tore a blanket into strips & plaited a rope & so hanged himself with it and was quite dead when found. The fourth that was condemned was reprieved.

Mr Grimshaw. On Sunday the 2nd October, Mr Grimshaw preached to a crowded congregation at Forton Chapel.

Race. There has been a race against time in Ireland. One Wilde betted many wagers that he rode 127 miles in 9 hours and he performed it in 6 hours 21 minutes. He rode 10 horses and won about about £1900.

On the 12th in the morning part of the Clough Bridge between Ortner Cawlong fell down and now a cart dare not pass over it.

December 2nd. Today was buried at Wyresdale Chapel Betty Crosfield from Ortner where she had been 3 or 4 years. She was aged 88 years but had been in a dotage a long time.

On the 23rd was buried at Cockerham Church, James Brammel of the Great Crag in Ellel aged about 70 years. It was very bad travelling, the roads all ice and snow and very slippery.

October:- The Court of Wyresdale was holden on the 29th at Marshaw.

November:- On Tuesday night the 13th Nov. the house of Andrew Richmond near Galgate, called the Lone House was besieged by 3 House breakers for 7 hours & at last they got in by bursting open the door by running the cart wheels against it. They stole £40 in money besides a quantity of plate & got clear off with their booty. The[y] began to peep in at the window by 8 o'clock at night and it was 3 in the morning before they got in. There was only three persons in the house viz. old Andrew, Dolly Thompson & a servant lass. After they had knocked the door down they were above half an hour before they dare venture in, old Andrew presenting a musket at them. At last they got in and wrested the gun from him after much struggling and that while Dolly got out of the house. The robbers demanded Andrews money and he gave them two guineas, but that would not do for them, they would have more or they would kill him, so he went upstairs and the rogues followed him and seized his whole stock of money, £40 & some plate of considerable value and then one of them wanted Old Dolly's money but the lass was not very ready to fetch it and the others having got so good a prize were for immediately going off, which they did. Old Dolly went & called Robert Taylor up and he went to Galgate to get help, but he and the brave people of Galgate were so timorous that they were above an hour before the returned to the house and met Andrew who told them that the robbers were gone and he would not let them give pursuit.

December. On Monday the 3rd December the people of Wyresdale met at the Chapel to male a subscription to hire men for militia and we subscribed 3/- each, there being 74 in Wyresdale fit for miltia but they are not all entered into the club.

On Wednesday the 5th December was buried at Wyresdale Meeting House, Jonathan Harrison, aged 60 ears. He was one of the best men in these parts and formerly a speaker at Wyresdale meeting and was very well approved of by all or most part his hearers who were pretty numerous. Some 4 or 5 years ago the Quakers at Lancaster found out that he was not quite in some point of religion, but what was not known and after talking with him they wafled backwards & forwards and at last read him out of the Meeting and he must not preach any more. This was very distressing to him and

1792

May 6th. Sunday. I was at Forton Chapel and my sister was thrown from her horse but providentially received no great harm. Miss Brown riding a galloway and it setting off with great fury she lost her hat & wig in the presence of her lover William Holtkinson.

About 6 o'clock at night Margaret Townley of Ortner died after about 3 weeks illness, being aged about 85 or 86 years. She retained her senses to the last.

Lancaster Canal. June:- The Canal it s said will not get forward yet, although they have got an Act of Parliament for it, the proprietors thinking it will do so much damage to the land. Many shares are already sold out and it is said at £3 per cent loss. Politics. In England the Heads of Government seem to be much afraid of a revolution in England. The King has put out a long proclamation against seditious books and libels which are not to be read. They are for forming a camp of soldiers to be read, against any disturbance and a deal such like as that.

The last papers bring an account of there having been a Riot in Maint Street London on account of the magistrate taking up and put in the guard house about 50 persons who were going to meet at an ale house to make merry it being the Kings birthday. As soon as this was known the people came and assembled together to set them at liberty again. The magistrate would have dispensed the crown but could not and then the military were called in & soon the crown became ungovernable and began to break the windows of the Guard house and now the soldiers were come and the magistrates & constables in the guardhouse began and fired at the mob, this instead of dispersing them made them only worse. They ran to the guard house and broke all the windows and would have got in there but could not. They then got the door off and entered amidst the fire of the enemy and immediately began to pull all down and throw it into the street. The magistrates then let the prisoners out, all but 5 or 6 and then the mob became quiet. The next day they assembled again but did nothing but smash windows.

There was also at the same time a riot at Edinburgh in the same occasion and one man was killed and several wounded.

Lancaster Canal. June 22nd. The Proprietors of the Canal are taking a new survey and are for bringing it on a higher level. They were levelling today on Ellel moor. They went a little below Henry Simpsons and across Wyre at Dolphinholme Factory.

July 3rd. I went down to the Pothouse to see a large ship launched, called the Claredon of London, but it missed being properly launched. It set off and got into the water and run aground of the plank ends and broke the tiller and as it set off the male who threw a bottle of rum in its face by some means broke his thumb. The ship cannot be got off till next springtime if it can then.

July 9th. The great flood in the Wyre on Monday night, the 9th, was occasioned by a cloud bursting which burst in three places, one on the Hinde Hill, another beside the slate quarry above the townbrook and the third somewhere on the High Fells. Where the cloud burst it is said it has beat holes into the hand bent hill. At the Townbrook it came down in a flood 6ft deep in a breast & came into houses and barns but I do not hear that it washed anything away except some potatoes out of a barn. All the grass was flooded, fences washed down and the road washed up and it is said to have done £40 worth of damage about the Townbrook. At Marshaw it was a terrible flood, the greatest ever known and came into the public house there which is a long way from the Wyre and at the gate into Marshaw Green the water was as high as the topmost bar but one. At Dolphinholme Factory it came down in a breast upwards of 4 feet deep. It is said that it brought down with it Tubs, Barrels, Butter Basins, dishes, stools & other such like things. At the street it was near as deep & came faster than a person could walk. It has done a great deal of damage in hay, grass, fences and roads.

July 18th. On the 18th of July our cousin John Clarkson was drowned as he was bathing at Heysham and another young man with him was also drowned. John Clarkson was apprentice to a stoneman in Lancaster and the other man was also a mason.

On Wednesday the 18th of July at Skerton during the thunderstorm the lightning struck a house and there was a man, a woman, and three children sitting by the fire who were all knocked down and the crane and firegate bars were melted off and one of the childrens clothes was burnt on one side to tinder and the child much burnt but not dangerously. All the rest were no worse. The house door was smashed to a thousand pieces & all the house much shaken as was two adjoining ones. At the same time two young men were passing the house with some potatoes in wiskets on their heads and they were both knocked down and the wiskets blown to pieces. The men were no worse afterwards.

The newspapers gave an account of a remarkable deal of dreadfull thunderstorms hail and rain in most parts of England & elsewhere and many great floods in some places.

August:- On the 15th the foundation of the intended New Bridge between Ortner Cawlong was laid by Robert Clarkson, Thos Clarkson & John Green assisted by Robert Yates, laboured. Robert Clarkson having undertaked to build the said bridge for the sum of £27 and is to have lime and sand found him & laid at the place.

On the 18th the Judges came into Lancaster. There are 16 Crown prisoners in the list for various crimes.

On the 22nd came on Cawthorne's trial with the proprietors of Dolphinholmes Factory about water courses.

On Sunday the 26th August there was a most fearful Thunderstorm and a very great flood. Sparrowgill rose very fast & it was as big as in any of the great floods in 1787. Damas gill was the greatest flood that ever I saw & it overflowed a great extent of land and did much damage particularly to the groundwork of the Bridge and to corn and potatoes. Damasgill Bridge stands in a very precarious fashion. All the ground work is washed out and the bridge now stands only on two stones, one at either side, that lower down the water is near washed out only holding by one corner. Conder was the greatest ever known in the memory of any person living. It has greatly damaged the Bridge at Galgate and made it quite impassable & the bridge at the New Mills is driven down. There are also 2 bridges at this side of Galgate near Smith Green of which one is washed down and the other greatly damaged. There are hundreds of acres of land under water in Holleth & thereaways. This flood in the Conder was bigger than Old Simon flood which happened about 30 years since and was called old Simon's flood from this:-

One Thomas Simpson going to Lancaster it being Market day & he got as far as Galgate and Conder was remarkably big and out of bounds and ran over the bridge but old Simpson would over and he was on horseback and he got on to the Bridge and the Arch broke in & he and his horse slipped through the bridge and was washed down and landed in the field below and neither him not the horse was drowned nor much hurt. It also washed the bridge at the New Mill down that flood. Old Simpson is alive at this time and lives at HearsomeSike in Ellel. Upwards of 20 people saw him sink through the Bridge and it has been called Old Simpson's flood ever since. All over Quernmore and Scotforth it was an unaccountable flood and about Caton and Lune was terrible it is said and many story's are told which I cannot well credit & so I do not mention them.

On August 28th Benjamin Clarkson was buried in Cockerham Churchyard.

On Thursday August 20th there was a most terrible strong East Wind which has done an incredible amount of damage in this country both in corn, thatch and trees. Accounts from Cockerham and other adjacent places say that the wind blew with unparalleled fury & had surely shaken corn so ill that the like had not been seen for 20 years. It has done damage to the amount of £100 to Kirby of Cockerham Hall in corn.

September. On September 12th was a very great flood in Sparrowgill, Damasgill & Wyre. It was a foot deeper than the great flood of August 25th. It has done a deal of damage in places & part of Cawmill wear is washed down, also the stapes?[*Stoops*] bridge at the Abbeystead and Richard Hathornthwaite's factory weir was washed out & corn overflowed in Lower Wyresdale.

On Monday, the 4th of May at night the shop belonging to Edward Richardson, at Caton was broken into and goods to the value of £80 or £100 stolen, particularly £15 worth of ribbons, check, silk, muslin, & waistcoat pieces, all the tea in the shop and every portable thing. The thieves had sawn a hole through the door. On the next day some people came through Wyresdale & into Bowland to search for the thieves and at the Sykes they called to get something to drink and to enquire after the rogues. There were several clothiers and a stocking seller with bags like as Scotchmen use &^ when they enquired of him he made a wonder of it and said among other things "bye, all the rogues are not hanged yet" and some of the house folk observed that he changed colour. However they that were searching went forward without suspecting him to Newton and Slaidburn and were coming back again when they met the clothiers. The clothiers that they had a suspicion of the stocking man so the searchers came & brought the constable with them to the Sykes and he was there & had been there all the while although they had been away four hours. The[y] searched his bags and instead of stockings they found fine velveret waistcoat pieces & muslin (but not a quarter of what was stolen out of the shop) and in the bottom of his bags the[y] found 2 loaded pistols and 2 very sharp knives & saws, chisels, picklocks and everything belonging to House breaking. They then brought him to Lancaster Castle.

August 22nd. There is scarcily anything talked of at present but the lawsuit between the Hathornthwaite and Cawthorne about Hunting & coursing & Davis, Cawthorne's gamekeeper shooting Mr Hathornthwaite's dogs by Cawthorne's orders.

The judges came into Lancaster today. Their names are Wilson & Thompson.

On the 26th the trial between Mr Hathornthwaite & Mr Cawthorne came on. The part of the case tried was about Davis & Cawthorne shooting 3 of Mr Hathornthwaite's dogs when he was hunting, but the dogs were not at full chase when they were shot. The trial came on at a quarter to five and ended at 7 o'clock when Mr Hathornthwaite got the Trial and £20 damages. It appeared in the trial that Mr Cawthorne nor anybody else has a right to shoot or destroy any person's dog whatever. Counsel for Cawthorne, Mr Chambers and Mr Jofrin. For Mr Hathornthwaite, Mr Lair, Mr Haywood, Mr Wood and Mr Cockin. The last mentioned is the best pleader I ever heard.

On the same say was tried a bloody villain named Kester Hartley, a young man about 20 years of age for murdering his sweetheart, one Hannah Corbridge. He first gave her poison and then cut her throat in a most dreadful manner. After a trial of 8 or 10 hours he was found guilty and is to be hanged on the 28th of this month.

The Assizes ended on the ???. 12 prisoners were tried. 3 were condemned to be hanged, 1 brought in special, some to be transported & some acquitted.

On the 30th of October was such a storm at sea as has not been these many years & a great number of ships lost and me. The town of Shields lost in this storm no less than 400 seamen.

On December 28th the Clubmen walked at Lancaster. There are 11 clubs and above 1000 members.

October:- The Court of Wyresdale was holden on the 29th at Marshaw.

November:- On Tuesday night the 13th Nov. the house of Andrew Richmond near Galgate, called the Lone House was besieged by 3 House breakers for 7 hours & at last they got in by bursting open the door by running the cart wheels against it. They stole £40 in money besides a quantity of plate & got clear off with their booty. The[y] began to peep in at the window by 8 o'clock at night and it was 3 in the morning before they got in. There was only three persons in the house viz. old Andrew, Dolly Thompson & a servant lass. After they had knocked the door down they were above half an hour before they dare venture in, old Andrew presenting a musket at them. At last they got in and wrested the gun from him after much struggling and that while Dolly got out of the house. The robbers demanded Andrews money and he gave them two guineas, but that would not do for them, they would have more or they would kill him, so he went upstairs and the rogues followed him and seized his whole stock of money, £40 & some plate of considerable value and then one of them wanted Old Dolly's money but the lass was not very ready to fetch it and the others having got so good a prize were for immediately going off, which they did. Old Dolly went & called Robert Taylor up and he went to Galgate to get help, but he and the brave people of Galgate were so timorous that they were above an hour before the returned to the house and met Andrew who told them that the robbers were gone and he would not let them give pursuit.

December. On Monday the 3rd December the people of Wyresdale met at the Chapel to male a subscription to hire men for militia and we subscribed 3/- each, there being 74 in Wyresdale fit for miltia but they are not all entered into the club.

On Wednesday the 5th December was buried at Wyresdale Meeting House, Jonathan Harrison, aged 60 ears. He was one of the best men in these parts and formerly a speaker at Wyresdale meeting and was very well approved of by all or most part his hearers who were pretty numerous. Some 4 or 5 years ago the Quakers at Lancaster found out that he was not quite in some point of religion, but what was not known and after talking with him they wafled backwards & forwards and at last read him out of the Meeting and he must not preach any more. This was very distressing to him and grieved him sorely as it did all his hearers and it is believed he never came to the meeting afterwards until the day of his death. He was attended to the grave by a great number of people and all his old hearers attended the funeral of this worthy man.

The newspapers give an account of the glorious successes of the French Army against the despot and slaves and Tyrants which they are fighting with. They have already all Savoy and set the people at Liberty and are still driving all before them. See ye tyrants the progress of Liberty and tremble at your merited fate.

In England there is some uneasiness and it is believed that Government is much frightened. Stocks fall very fast, 4 percent last week were at 88 and about a fortnight before the[y] were 100 and upwards. There has been several proclamations put out against Libels and Seditious books said to be in circulation and I suppose the Rights of Man by Thomas Paine is one of the principal books against them. That useless, extravagant King or despot of ours has ordered the Parliament to meet on the 13th of this month, which was not to meet till January 3rd, 1793, so that evidently shows fear to amongst them; fear always accompanies guilt; and also the King has ordered the militia to be forthwith embodied in several Counties and two men of War and five frigates put in commission, so that there is hopes of a Revolution in England. I for myself hope so as we have been slaves long enough and have maintained the Hanoverian Despot long enough. They might find fitter objects to bestow £1,000,000 per annum on than a crazy King.

The English are fitting out ships and making a great bustle, and in many towns the Gentlemen are forming associations against any alteration in England. At Lancaster they are doing the same. In Scotland there has been some disturbance in places. I rather think the English are going to fall out with France but if they do they will rue the day they begun, but it will be the best may to make a Revolution at home. The pressing of men to man the ships with is a grievance and is downright tyranny. The alteration which I would have is the total abolition of the Game Laws, for who has more might to them than the farmer who keeps them. Are not the hare, the partridge, and the pheasant bred in his grounds, are they not brought up in his fields and are they not fed in his corn. His wheat, barley and oats. All farmers suffer material damage every year by this tyrannic Law. Secondly, I would have the Tithe knocked off. The tithe is a great detriment to the industrious farmer, every tenth sheaf is taken for tithe, every tenth acre is gone this way. Every religion I think should maintain their own parsons as they please if they will and not make every Denomination of people pay to the maintenance of only one sort of Religion. Is it Justice? Is it right? Thirdly I would have that tyrannical mode of pressing men to serve on board the men of war set aside. It is right to make a man fight whether he will or not? It is despotism and Tyranny. Fourthly, I would have all the tolls and such like abolished. One cannot take a load of meal or potatoes to market but there is a market toll to pay for it standing in the market, and it we buy anything in the town there is passage toll to pay for bringing it out if they be not Freemen of the Town. Is not this an imposition! Does it not want annihilation and laying aside.

The newspapers of last week contain the meeting of the Parliament of Great Britain and the Kings Speech and it seems he is going to declare war against the French for some reason or other. The Parliament debate had about it but a great majority is for it, but against it is several good spokesmen and they let them know their sentiments pretty freely, particularly the Hon. Charles Tose/Fox?, Mr Grey, Whitebread the younger, Courtney and several others trll them any way is better than going to war, but fight they will I suppose and sadly they will be beaten. "They will rue the day that they begun". They can gain nothing but they may lose a deal. The French are trying the King for treason and very likely he will be beheaded ere long. It pity the poor King and think they should not put him to death. I would let him live but there is no chance of that scarcely at all.

Dec 30th. This forenoon, one Joshua Rigg, hatter, hanged himself at Cawbarn at Lentworth, where he was found quite dead by Edmund Jackson & Thomas Winder. The coroners inquest sat on the 31st and brought in a verdict Lunatic. The account we hear of the affair is this:- one Alice Winder of Abystead was coming to see her son Thomas & she came be Cawbarn & saw some body in the far end of the Shippon standing or hanging in a very off posture and she durst not go in to see how or who it was, but came forward to Thomas Winder and there told what she had seen & so Tommy would go to see what was the matter as he thought it might be some of William Jacksons folk come to let the beasts out and was fallen ill or something of that sort. So he went as fast as he could and when he got near Cawbarn he saw Edmund Jackson running up the cliff towards home as hard as he could. So Tommy went forward to the barn and looked into the Shippon at the West end of the barn and saw nothing there and then he went to the other Shippon and there he saw a man hanging but he was so frightened that he could not and durst not go in to the Shippon but ran back and got into the muck midden and put up his hat he seeing somebody towards Lentworth who put up their hat again. Having considered a bit he ventured into the Shippon and took hold of the man's hand & found it quite cold & he found out it was Joshua Rigg. Presently Edmund Jackson, John Swindlehurst & Robert Blezard came and they took him down. Edmund Jackson had been there before, he just following Alice Winder and he found the Jos hanging up and was so frightened that he took away and ran home without knowing who it was and told their folk that there was a stranger hanged in the Cawbarn. When he was taken down some went to let the family know what had happened and then William Procter went for the Coroner and he would not come because it was Sunday, but he would come the next day which he did. Rigg had hanged himself with a cord which he had taken out of Thomas Procter's shop and he told the family that he was going to the Chapel & he would go by Ortner, but he did no[t] go to either place but to Cawbarn where he fixed the cord to a bearer in the Scaffold bottom & then got a great stone to stand on while he got his neck into the noose & then slipped off the stone & hanged. His toes just touched the ground as he hung. He was taken home that night before the coroner came. The jury were out of 3 Townships viz. Higher Wyresdale, Lower Wyresdale, & Ellel. In Wyresdale was John Jackson, Thomas Bateson, John Townley & James Shaw. In Lower Wyresdale was Wm Martin. In Ellel Wm Fizzakerley, Wm Gifforn, Rd Eccles & the jury have 4d each allowed by the Town for such affairs as these.

Wm Jackson's folk are so frightened about Jos. Rigg hanging himself that they dare not come to Cawbarn in the day time to let the beasts out unless two of them come together, and one dare not go to bed unless another go with him & Ester dare not go up and down the house with[out] a candle after it is dark. They have taken all the beasts out of the Cawbarn home & will remove all the hay & corn as soon as they can for they dare come no more there.

At the end of 1792 there was only 1 cotton weaver in Wyresdale, that is John Winder's son at Abystead, but there are several learning.

1793

January 16th. There is going to be a great hullabulloo about Thomas Paine. Cawthorne will give something to drink on the top of Cross Height and make a great fire and burn the effigy of Thomas Paine and sing God save the King & Lillaballears [*probably "Lillibullero" meaning the refrain*] and burn heretics and when all the fools in the country met there are got drunk they very probably will go and pull somebodys house down for the good of the country and to shew their Loyalty to the King and constitution. This disturbance is to be on Friday night net. They are making the effigy of Thomas Paine at Dolphinholme Factory. Lord help such fools.

Jan 18th. Friday. This morning a set of Tom Paine fools went with the effigy of him all through the country a begging to all the gentlemen's houses far and near but I suppose got not much. In the afternoon a great multitude of Tom Paine fools assembled upon Croft height and made a fire and then hanged and burnt the effigy of Paine and drunk the ale but I did not hear that the King's health was drunk by anybody. They shot a deal of powder away which had better have saved til the French came. Report says that there was 1400 or 1500 fools there but the greatest fool there was Cawthorne. Many of the fools got drunk & then departed home without doing any mischief. It is to keep the people quiet and to keep them from making any disturbance and from talking treason. Is this a likely way to make people silent.

Jan 28th. Cawthorne has got his trial with the Dolphinholme Factory Company. His cannon was fired yester night by way of rejoicing.

The King of France was executed last Monday at noon so there is an end of him.

Feb 2nd. Saturday. John Jackson of Torrisholme, son of Timothy Jackson was married to my sister, Margaret at Lancaster. The only company at the wedding was Richard, her brother, Betty & Peggy Jackson of Torrisholme and Wm Wakefield of Lancaster. The dues cost £1 - 16- 9.

Feb. 8th. Today Thomas Crosfield was buried at Wyresdale chapel aged 89 or 90 years. Sometime since he was a farmer at Swainshead but lately lived at Ortner with Thomas Townley who married his daughter.

Feb 5th The French Ambassador at London has been ordered to quit England which he did. This is considered a declaration of war.

Feb 9th. The French nation have sent another ambassador over and he has been ordered back and the English have laid an embargo on all the French ships in the ports of England.

Now sounds the dreadful Trumpet of War. There will be nothing but fire & sword, desolation and fighting up to the knees in blood. All Europe has taken the alarm and are determined to crush the poor French because they have thrown off the yoke of servitude. The English are determined with the rest of Europe to set up the same despotical Tyrannical form of Government which the French nation has fortunately shaken off. They will strive & say to set up the same over the people of France again but I hope the French will be not only able to maintain all their liberty but to give all those who fight against them a most hearty drubbing. I must say no more. My father has commanded me to write nothing about the war or Thomas Paine or politics of any sort for if anybody saw what I have already written I should be tried for a libel and perhaps hanged. If any disturbance should take place I should be first to burn this book which would grieve me ill.

Feb: 13th The Militia of Lancashire are embodied at Preston to be ready against the French, liberty, land on the coast of England.

Feb 23rd. Great debates in Parliament about the War which has always been opposed by Charles Fox & others. On Fox's last motion there was a majority of 226 against it. For it there was only 44, though few in number they talk well and have much the best of the argument. It was a very great debate. Speakers for the motion, Chas. Fox, Mr Sheridan, Mr Grey, Mr Adams, Mr Jekill, Major Markland, Mr Lambton, Mr Smith. Against the motion and for war were Mr Burke, Mr Jenkinson, Mr Bent, Mr Vaughan, Mr Powis, Richad Hill, Francis Basset, George Cornwall, Sir Hy Norton. Some members spoke twice viz Burke, Fox and Sheridan.

March 9th. Nothing material in Parliament. In the Irish Parliament the reform goes forward viz. the Catholics are to have the same liberty of voteing at Elections as Protestants have but the Catholics are not to be chosen Parliament men. That clause was lost. The war with France will ruin all. All trade is at a stand.

March 9th. The judges came into Lancaster today. There are 17 prisoners to take their trial at these assizes.

March 13th. Was at Lancaster and heard the trail of Wm Holme for robbing Kester Lin on the highway. Found guilty. Also the trial of a man for ravishing a woman. Found guilty. There was a very crowded court.

April. The war with France is very ruinous to England and many severe effects have already taken place. Worsten if fallen in spinning 5d or 6d per lb. As one instance, one Betty Eccles a poor old woman who spins usually 2lbs per week of the smallest sort which came to 1/8 per lb or thereabouts and a week or two since she took her weeks work in to James Jackson and it was fallen 5d per lb that is 10d out of her weekly earnings instead of receiving 3/4 she only got 2/6. She then was in a vehement passion and called James Jackson as ill as ever she could (she being a rather silly sort of person) and thought it was his fault when it was worst for him of anybody. He said that although she called him so he could not be angry at her but really pitted her. I think those who began this war will have much to answer for. How can this poor old woman live now deprived of a fourth part of her bread! She must have more out of the parish to be sure and that answer is given by all the friends of was and bloodshed.

May. The parliament have been examining into the cause of the failure of public credit of all the banks stopping payment. Fox plainly tells them that the war is the cause of all. The distress of the workers in the factorys who are turned out is very great indeed. All is going fast to wreck and ruin. There is 160,000 men women & children thrown out of work & consequently bread in Scotland. At Bolton people are nearly famished and money is scarce there that there is only 1 guinea in the town which is such a rarity that people give 2s each to see it.

June 8th. There is much mobbing and rioting in Ireland about the Militia being enrolled, the people will not have their names entered. Soldiers are forced to quell them and many men are killed in divers places.

August 11th. Sunday. Heard James Grimshaw preach at Garstang Methodist Chapel from the text Like 22, last verse. [*And when he came out, he could not speak unto them: and they perceived that he had seen a vision in the temple: for he beckoned unto them, and remained speechless.*]

17th. There has been three sad accidents to horses lately. A few weeks since one James Procter, hatter at Morehead borrowed a horse to lead turf with Joseph Smith of the Lee and he put the horse in the pasture and a cow sticked it with its horns so that it died soon afterwards. The horse was valued at 11 guineas. James Procter begged among his neighbours & got a pretty considerable sum of money to pay for the horse with. Peter Bramwell has had a a young horse staked at an old gate at Damasgill side & found dead one morning last week. A few days ago Wm Lambert lost a good horse. They were leading stones up the brow from the quarry and left one cart standing at the bottom whilst they traced the other up and on returning they found that from the stones being so much behind the cart hath kicked up and hanged the horse.

September. A Mr Muir in Scotland has been tried for selling the rights of man and for sedition and found guilty and is to be transported for 14 years.

August 22nd. A very great flood much land covered. Abystead Bridge was washed down & all the lane washed out of Caw weir & otherwise much damaged. Dolphinholme Factory weir broken down in the middle of 4 or 5 yds in length and the Factory water wheel gudgeon broken & another wheel broken and another great flood on October 3rd burst the Dolphinholme Factory weir out. On the 26th it was again riven up and washed clean away. Not above one half of it left standing. The factory is stopped when the weir is broken down. It took 8 days to repair it after the flood of October 3rd.

December 14. The Parliament is prorogued [*end of a Parliamentary seesion*] until the 21st January 1794. There has been many people tried for sedition & libel and dealt with severely with according to Law. The weaving trade is worse than ever, many people almost famished and no sign of improvement. The war we are engaged in is the sole cause of all this stagnation of trade which has thrown thousands out of bread.

1794

February 1st. Yesterday there was the greatest fresh water flood almost ever remembered in the Lune and many ships were drowned in Hornby Holmes.

On the 21st of January the Parliament and the King's speech being made which was for bloodshed and ruin an address was moved to be presented to the King which was carried by a great majority. The minority or those for peace were 62 which is 18 more than last year. There was great debate upon the address. The minority have the advantage of talking but the others out-poll them in numbers. Since then nothing material has passed in the Parliament House. The farce of Warren Hastings is to be carried on again in a few days. There have been some debates in the House of Commons about the illegality of the Courts of Justice in Scotland or rather courts of injustice - they transport men for 14 years to Botany Bay for being honest men only.

Feb 15th. In the Parliament House Mr Wilberforce made a motion for abolishing the trade of carrying slaves to foreign territories and after some debates in which J. F. Cawthorne and Dent had some share, the House divided, for the motion 63, against it 40.

February. Much damage has been done to Shipping in the storm at the latter end of last month, a great number being lost, sunk, and run on shore in divers places. The storm of snow and wind in the Northern part was the most terrible ever known and many people have been lost in the snow in Scotland and also a great quantity of sheep.

March. In this country many people propose going to settle in America - that land of Liberty - as many as 80 are talked of within the space of a few miles. Two men viz George Parker of Fell End and Daniel Raby set of[f] last Monday (March 10th) to Liverpool to take shipping to America and look out for a proper place to settle in which if they light on tho their minds they will come back and sell all and away again to the happy shores of Liberty & Freedom and will leave this land of slavery to those who have a mind to be slaves.

March 29th. My sister, Margaret, died today about 1 o'clock in the afternoon aged about 28 years & was buried on April 1st at the Back Lane Chapel in Lancaster. She had been married about 1 year.

April 18th. Friday at Wyresdale Meeting was Sarah Harrison from America who preached & prayed to them.

August. One the 1st there was new oats made at Cleveley Mill and on the 2nd there was 2 loads of meal of this years crop in Lancaster market. It belonged to Wm Thompson of Cockerham.

11th. There is a many shearers gone into Cockerham and over Lune to shear at this time, more than ever remembered before. Harvest there is very forward this year.

September 25. George Parker and Samuel Raby are come back from America a few days since in good health and spirits.

October 13th. Samuel Raby & his father and the Parkers of the Fell End are preparing to go to the Land of Liberty. They have advertised their land to be sold on the 30th of this month. The Estate of Landskill is 160 acres one half belonging to Raby and the other to Parker. James Raby has also an estate called Starbank in Ellel of about 27 acres & some about the Hollings. Many more people talk of going. George Parker has said that in America a man may live as well upon £100 as upon £300 in this country.

Note:

Lately Jackson Mason of Lancaster bought Gabriel Thompsons Estate at Greenbank for about £800, he kept it not a month and has now sold it to Bateson for £1050.

Note:

On November 7th James Bibby's wife died at Catshaw and on the 8th Thomas Simpson at Marshaw. He lived many years at Hearson Syke, farmer and in many other places. He was an old man but how old not know[n]. On the same day died Mary Corless at Abystead at an advanced age. She was walking out of doors on the day she died. And on the same day a child of Robert Townley's at Hathornthwaite.

Note on Nov 14th.

In Cockerham at the beginning of this week there died at one time 3 persons viz Joseph Poe & Wm Fairclough and a young woman. The two first were hardly ever sober.

On the night of November 21st the wind blew with terrific violence and did a great deal of damage all the country through to thatch & some trees were blown down and also Cawthornes Slavery pole.

December. On the 2nd & 3rd were two very great floods in the Wyre, Sparrowgill & Dama Gill. The Cocker and the Conder were surprisingly high, not only to overflowing the adjacent land but also came into houses and [w]hole of Ellel and at Galgate.

On the 20th at night Robert Birkett of the Lee was as he was coming from Lancaster market so benumbed with the cold that he laid himself down it is supposed and lay there upon the road on the High Cross Moor between 9 and 10 hours when he was found by his apprentices and with some others assistance he was carried to Thomas Escolme's alive but insensible where he continued till the 22nd and died about noon on that day. He never spoke nor was in the least sensible after he was found.

1795

January 12th. Timothy Birkett, hatter, failed and made a London flit. Supposed not to pay above 5/- in the pound.

February 7th. On this day 2 men were nearly lost coming from Lancaster viz. Robert Clarkson & John Drinkall. Robert Clarkson was in company with his brother Thomas and they cane to Galgate and at Henry Simpsons he was so starved and ill that he could not walk without assistance. They then called at his brother John's and got some refreshment and he recovered in some sort as to be able to get home that night.

John Drinkall, hatter, was found lying on the road by Christopher Gates who got him on to his horse & took him home and when he got off the horse he could scarcely walk.

Only the week before on Rushton of Tarnbrook or Dunisham, slater, was coming from Lancaster over the High Cross Moor road and had been near perishing on the snow & certainly would had be not been in the company of others who helped him forward & called at the Lee and something to warm him so that he recovered and got home that night.

Feb. 25th. Today was a fast and prayer day by order of his Majesty Tyrant George to pray for the success of his army against the liberty of France. NB It was a three halfpenny prayer but who composed it I do not know.

April 8th. About midnight my sister’s daughter Janet Jackson died after a violent illness of about a fortnight. She was buried on the 10th at Lancaster besides her mother. Her father John Jackson is very poorly and it is supposed cannot live long.

April 12th. On this day John Jackson died at night. It is very remarkable that in the space of about one year and a fortnight the whole family died.

May. At the Fair at this time the Cattle stood in the Church Street, Pudding Land and Penny Street, in the Broad way pretty thick to the bottom and at the Stone well & a considerable way on Leonard Gate & up into Moor lane.

On the 25th Lancaster people rode the boundaries. There was about 100 horsemen & but few on foot.

June 1st. Upon Catshaw Fell there is old frost in the moss which was frozen last winter where people get turf they find frost a foot thick and as hard as possible & when they have thrown it out it is 2 days in thawing. It is I understand thawn a foot deep and then there is another foot thick of frost. There has frost been found on the Abystead fell this year.

The newspapers give account of very cold weather in Scotland. It had frozen and snowed for about 2 days and the roads were nearly impassible from the great quantity of snow. There were icicles at the house sides 18 inches long.

July. There is much talk at this time of the dearness of bread and a famine almost feared. A dearth it most certainly is. There has been 48 loads of meal sold in Wyresdale this week at a higher price than was ever known before (prices from 42/- to 46/- per load). The greater part goes through the Trough of Bowland.

August. On the 8th of this month there was a riot at Lancaster in consequence of the high price of meal. During the time of the market a number of raggelty women made a great noise and talked at great rate and when the market was over and much of the meal gone out of it and a man called Taylor from Borwick had 2 loads which he did not sell. He offered it at 52/6 and at 50/- but no one bid anything so he was going to take it away and had got a load upon his back and a mad woman seized hold of it and pulled it off his back and instantly there were 40 other mad women came to her assistance. The man seeing this ran away and left them in possession of the meal which they kept in the Town Hall above an hour and would weigh or measure it out in Littledoms but they could get nothing to weigh or measure it in. One woman swore she would measure it in her hat but presently came the Mayor - Addison and others as Stanley Turner, Cuthbert Baines etc. but they could effect nothing. The mob jostled and jowled them about so that they were fain to leave them. The sisters then brought some loads out of the Hall into the street and they gave many great Huzza's all the time. When they had got it out into the street they began to sell it out at 6lbs per shilling which is 40/- per load. What they would do with the money I cannot tell. Whilst some were with that in the street others of the Rioters kept possession of that in the Hall and the rioters insisted that there was meal enough and they would have it out. They would attack the shops next and they declared that no more meal should be sold at above 40/- per load. One of the ringleaders was Rebecca Ashton of Wyresdale.

Aug 22nd. There was the first new meal in Lancaster Market today - 2 loads belonging to R. Whitehead of Forton & it sold for 41/- per load.

There was much talk about a strange thing that was to happen on the 26th viz that the sun would not rise for 3 days and that the Devil would come and many people were so credulous as to believe it, but more especially the women.

Two houses were washed down in Pilling and at Pilling Hall they were wakened by the cattle bellowing and on getting up found them standing up to their bellys in water in the shippons. They immediately turned them out and drove them on to a hill near but presently the water rose recovered the hill but not so deep but that the cattle could stand. In one house in Pilling an old woman was in bed sitting and the water rose about her breast high.

In one place above 20 hogsheads were taken up and great quantities of ships wood.

At Cockerham Hall much damage was done. Where the ground was flooded it is said that it is spoiled for 2 years & all the Dykes filled with salt water. There is no fresh water to be found on several farms.

At Lancaster much damage was done in the lower parts of the Town. Most of the cellars on the Quay were filled with water and great quantities of sugar and other perishable articles destroyed. On the 29th the tide ran very high and a great number of people stood about Lancaster Church to view it & saw it run up with amazing rapidity. It covered all Lancaster March & the Quay & floated a great quantity of wood up the quay & at the new Bridge a great height & covered the Ladies walk & spoiled all the ale in a Public House.

At Preston 2 sloops were driven upon the marsh & 2 ships were lost at Wyre foot & 5 dead men cast up at Silverdale.

Over Lune much damage was done to the land & the dykes. A barn end was washed down & in one Bagot's property a large hole was made by the flood capable of holding a large ship.

November 14th. There is much talk at this time of the dearness of provisions, of a dearth and a famine, this years crop being reported to be one quarter short of the usual produce in the corn countries.

Nov. 17th. Today the Constable & overseer of the Township was about seeing what corn people had this year an account having to be given of the corn people have has this and the last two years by order of the Justice of the Peace, Parliament having the dearness of Bread and Grain under consideration at this time.

December 2nd. On this day was buried at Wyresdale Meeting House, Jane Harrison, widow of Jonathan Harrison, aged 68 years. It is 3 years less 3 days since Jonathan was buried.

1796

January 8th. Dolphinholme Factory is not yet got to work, but great preparation is making at this time. A weir has been erected over Wyre a piece below our holm end made of wood like the old one but not so high by a deal and much stronger. In making it, first a half baulk was laid in the bottom of the river something below the bed of the river and was forced/fastened down by spikes 4 feet long driven through the baulk. Into this was erected posts nearly perpendicular and on top of these posts was fixed across a half baulk for the top of the weir and then it was planked on the foreside and nailed to the top and bottom baulks and behind was an apron or sail 6 yds broad from the weir and from this apron was supporters set to the top of the weir to the apron and on the foreside of the weir was laid stones & gravel as high as the weir and as broad as a cart road. A new fender head was made and a new cut or mill race made through part of the wood it turning from the fender mouth much into the brow side which being soft marshy stuff it slipped on almost as fast as they got it out. The men that made the cut had 3/- a day & potatoes cabbage & onions & a house to live in.

The company have bought £7000 worth of wool and brought much of it to Dolphinholme and have at this time got 15 wool combers and more are wanted. The lowest account says they will have 30 combers and the highest says 120. They talk of employing about 200 people. At this time they have hired 3 blacksmiths viz Edmund Winder, James Parker & Christopher Beamon. Headwen is head generalissimo and John Patchett clerk at £50 per year. They are also going to build 3 or 4 houses in the brow side above the other houses at the other side of the road and have set the feighing to Joseph Parkinson, John Swindlehurst and Pedder & John Hatkinson at 2/- per day or 4d per yard and when they had worked a day or two they chose to do it by the day but since they would rather do it by the yard but must not choose again. The houses at the Factory side of Wyre are to be 1/6 per week and those at the bridge end the same price and the lower houses in the brow side the same price. The higher houses are to be 1/3 per week. The shop is nearly £10 taken by Jonathan Speakmen. Anthony Physick intends to Kit milk thither from Higher Greenbank.

Jan 11th. The Court for Wyresdale was held this day at Marshaw and my father and Thomas Parker were appointed assessors and Thomas Bamber and John Hall were appointed Fence lookers and Street masters and there is always 12 jurymen chosen and this time 3 were chosen who refused to take and an oath so they took their affirmation instead. The[y] are Thos Procter, Wm Cragg and my father. I have never heard of anyone being appointed a jury man without taking an oath before.

12th. Dolphinholme Factory is said to begin work next week. Hadwell is for finding the road through Wyresdale. He will have it made 8 yards wide. It is said he is gone to Lancaster today for that purpose.

J.F. Cawthorne is going to build a new Factory at Corless Mill to be 37 yards long, 11 yards broad & 4 storys high. To be set up in 6 months time to spin worsted. He has hired Nathaniel Booth who is to have the whole ordering about the factory. It is said they will have water enough and a fall of 20 feet. Factory houses to be built in a Lot above the wood.

Jan. 14th. Hadwell of Dolphinholme has fined the road through the middle of Wyresdale. The road through Hayshaw he had intended to fine but George Drinkall supervisor of Wyresdale set some men to repair ir & so he could not fine the road when it was under repair & so he for spite it is said fined the middle of the road which indeed is very bad in many places as the Cross Lanes Long rake, Wyre and the street Lane and from thence till it join the other road below the top of the Emmets near the 7th milestone. The road is supposed to be about 3 miles long or thereabouts.

16th It is now said that the road through Hayshaw that is indicted from Lower Wyresdale to the top of the Trough is not less than 5 miles long & it is reported that it must be made 3 yards wider all the way & that two new bridges must be made, one at the Mill Brook Over Wyre and the other over the Cawhousclough. It is supposed to cost £300 or £400.

On the 16th of this month it being Market day at Lancaster and meal and wheat very dear though a good supply was there. In consequence of the high price of meal a great number of raggely women assembled and threatened to take meal from folk. However the market was soon over - in less than 15 minutes - the buyers only spoke twice for a bargain. viz "what price?" which was 42/- mostly. "Tye it up" so all was over presently in the market. But Robert Bleasdale to a cartfull down to the Bear & Staff and there a great company of women and some men collected about the cart and would needs have the loads out. But a country man told them if they wanted to go to the Castle they might lay hands on it, if not, they had better desist, for everyone that made any attempt to unload the cart should certainly go there or to the House of Correction. Some other people talked to them. Jacob Bilsborough put 3 load on to the cart at the Bear & Staff, the man on the cart was much frightened and thought they would have seized the meal but Jacob said "Come, never fear, they dar[e] not meddle" so they got loaded and Robert drove off but was in such a hurry that he forgot his haysack. John Cartmell of the Marlholes came out of the Bear & Staff and got well called, the mob told him he had a rare broad back to whip. After the cart was gone the women accused one another of being fainthearted in the affair. They then went to the stonewell and back again to the Horse Shoe Corner as if looking for some other carts. They threatened that on the 18th they would pull Redmayne's warehouse down. On the 18th accordingly as they had promised the mob assembled again and examined Redmayne's warehouse which they found meal but no damage. They then went down the Pudding lane and insulted John Jackson, shopkeeper and then went to the Quay and broke some windows and then back to the Horse Shoe Corner and there was Wm Lambert's folk with a cart and a waggon loaded with meal which the mob threatened to take but the drivers drove into the Bear & Staff yard and the Landlord went and raised men and the Mayor and so the guarded the meal out of the town. The mob huzza'd three times when they got into Redmayne's warehouse.

In the last session of Parliament an Act was passed for the more ready passage of grain from one part of the country to another and these mobs are not for letting it circulate but they would keep it all at Lancaster. In this Winter there has passed through Lancaster many hundred loads of meal every week which gives great distribution to Lancaster Mobs. There is Badgers or traders in corn and meal going from Preston, Chipping & other parts and buying up all the meal they can about Kendal, Penrith and the North Country all which passes through Lancaster & goes to Blackburn Burnley Bolton & other parts, but Lancaster is a place where the North Country people deliver their meal & carts from Ellel and other parts take it forward to the South. Christopher Marton of Preston, a great trader comes once or twice to Lancaster for meal & takes 50 or 60 loads at a time.

In the North it certainly has been a good crop of oats, but in the south, that is Blackburn, Burnely, Bolton & other markets the crop of the adjacent country however good would not be sufficient to supply them & formerly before the war they were supplied out of Yorkshire mostly, but since the war there has been very little corn imported at Hull & other ports & so the Yorkshire farmers find a better market the other way & nearer home.

Many people have got an idle silly notion that the wheat & meal is bought by the traders and sent into France to confirm which they say that a person who had been a prisoner on France and going into a warehouse there saw many sacks with James Brunton set on the, and others with Redmayne Lancaster & several other peoples sacks he saw. Many people are so credulous as to believe this story though nothing could be more silly and absurd.

Note:- One Betty Procter wife of Thomas Procter died the latter end of last month and Thomas insisted that she should be buried in an old chest that stood in the house, however the neighbours interfered and persuaded him from it so he ordered a coffin to be made but told the carpenter that he must never lay plane on the boards but just nail them together rough as they were. There were only few bid to the funeral and the corpse was brought in a cart to the Chapel Yard.

On the 17th of this month Lyddie Barrow, Innkeeper, Garstang died & on the same day 2 children of Wm Kirby of Cockerham of a scarlet fever. On the 19th Thomas Gardner died at Galgate.

On the 22nd of this month at Lancaster a great concourse of the nobility assembled.

Feb 18th. Dolphinholme Factory. At this time they have got about 15 frames to work and spin very well. Some they spin to 18 hanks to the lb. They are going to build more houses it is said, 12 or 14 in all. 6 men have been at work all this year in feying for house steads in the Brow side at 2/- per day till Candlemas. Robert Clarkson has taken the houses to build.

Feb 20th. At Lancaster market a man had some loads of meal adulterated with other gran as barley and peas. The meal was soft and dooghly. When it was found out the man ran away and the Towns officers took the meal away to a place of safety. It is said that there was 10 loads of this meal.

Feb 22nd. Today was buried at Wyresdale Chapel John Winder of Dolphinholme. The farm is now out of lease his life being the last. The rent was £44 per annum and now it is supposed it will be £100 or more. John had only one child at his death.

Feb 24th. The Reelers at Dolphonholme Factory had a turn out last week and insisted on having the same wages as the last Company gave which was granted. Robert Clarkson laid the foundation of part of the new houses this week.

There is to be a sale at Dolphinholme on the 8th and 9th of next month. Alice Winder leaving the place which she could not take again. It is vaguely reported that there has been £150 per year bid for the farm.

March. On the 10th of this month one Sutton from Preston called at John Townley's at Ortner and being very full of himself he look again down in the parlour, pointed it at James Clarkson who was sewing on the table but James took hold of the gun and turned it sideway and stooped down and so missed being shot for the gun went off against the hearthstone and the shots flew into the ash-hole & filled the whole room with ashes and smoke. Several persons narrowly escaped being hit. Sutton only laughed when all was done.

Last week a Hawk pursued a little bird into the house of Christopher Gates and the little bird gave a sudden twirl, screamed and flew out at the door again and the Hawk flew against the window and was taken there by Christopher Gates wife.

About 5 o'clock on the morning of March 27th the barn and part of the house of Grifith at Scotforth was burnt down. The damage is estimated at £100. Among other valuable articles destroyed was 9 feeding cocks which were to have fought tomorrow.

April 9th. At this time there are 4 stationers shops in Lancaster but some time since there were 6.

April 14th. A coat & waistcoat cost 8/- making in Lancaster. In the country a tailor has 1/- per day and meal, but at this time some have got 1/3 per day & meal.

April 18th. Richard and I set off this morning to go to Carlisle. We set off at 2 o'clock and got to Kendal by 10 o'clock in the morning, then forward over Shap Fells to Shap and from thence to Penrith which is a pretty large town where we tarried all night and we were much fatigued with our journey of about 55 miles. It was about 7 o'clock at night when we reached Penrith. The day was very warm and there was a great shower of rain upon Shap Fells, part of which we were in. On the 19th we went from Penrith to Carlisle over Penrith Fell. Cumberland Quarterly meeting was held in the afternoon on the 20th there yearly meeting was held and many friends were there from various parts of the country and from America. On the 21st a meeting for conference. We left Carlisle for Wigton. In the 22nd we came from Wigton, through Cockermouth to Whitehaven, 31 miles. On the 23rd we came from Whitehaven through Egremont to Kendal, 50 miles and were much fatigued at night. We came over Hardknot and Wryness and by Winandermere and Ambleside. On the 24th we came from Kendal by Milnthorpe and Warton to Bolton.

May. On the 2nd in the afternoon as Henry Killgrass an James Ratlif were coming from Lancaster both of them very drunk they both got onto one horse and were riding along but it is said not very fast, but they both fell between Lancaster and Scotforth against a fence wall and James Ratclif's head was so smashed that he died a few hours afterwards. The other man was much bruised but not supposed dangerous.

May 5th. News came today that John Fenton Cawthorne is expelled the House of Commons. The house divided on the motion for expelling him and there appeared for the expulsion 108 against it 12. Majority 96. So now this tyrant is divested of all his honours and places and reduced to nothing and worse than nothing an infamous character. It is also said that he has assigned over his estate and effects to one Green an attorney at London for the benefit of the creditors and that his land will be sold very soon. In the latter end of April there set off out of Lower Wyresdale and parts adjacent a number of people going to Liverpool and from then to New York in America where they mean to settle. viz. John Richmond, his wife & 6 children, John Shaw and Robert Shaw, John Robinson and 3 daughters, James Lambert, his wife & 3 children, George Parker and his wife.

Some account of them. John Richmond of the Lone head in Lower Wyresdale, husbandman. He has two farms underhand, one an old lease very cheap & 3 lives in it, the other he had from year to year at a very reasonable rent. Upon the whole he had a very good living in this country which he could not be deprived of during his life, but he was a whimsical sort of man and bethought himself of going to America and so could not be easy until he went. His wife had a legacy of £187 left by a relation at Liverpool very lately. His eldest child was about 18 years old & the youngest about 1 year old.

John Shaw, servant with John Richmond had a small tenement in Lower Wyresdale. He was a young man as was his brother Robert Shaw.

John Robinson of the Stakehouses, farmer, should have gone last year and sold all he had but when the time came his wife would not go and he would not go without her, but she would never live with him after so now he is gone without her.

James Lambert, weaver, at the Lonehead at a place called Sanderses. He has 3 small children.

George Parker, late of the Fell End in Lower Wyresdale, farmer. He had a very good estate of land at a place called Landskill which he sold last year about which time he was married. He is one that went into America about two years since to see what sort of a country it was. He has about £1000 fortune. It is said that they sailed in low spirits and were very sorrowful to leave old England at the last of all though before they thought there was no living in it John Richmond cried much at Liverpool before he went on shipboard though he was never known to cry before. James Lambert was almost distracted and John Richmond's wife though the most unwilling to go was in the best heart of any present.

About a year since several people went to America out of this country viz John Berry who was born about Orton and was farmer beyond Burton in Kendal. He and his wife and six children went; and one James Thompson from the Foxhouses, his wife and four children also.

May 11th. There are now 3 arches turned of the canal Bridge which is building over Lune and the fourth begun of. There is to be 5 arches in all.

May 24th. A general Election is at this time summoned for a new Parliament the other being dissolved by proclamation.

The Election at Lancaster took place on the 30th when Dent and Richard Penn came in without any opposition. Penn is come in Lord Lonsdale's interest. Lonsdale having had 3 contests before at Lancaster and never got in. The fourth time he comes in without opposition. All the freemen's sons and apprentices had their freedom given by Dent and Penn. The apprentices cost £1-15-3 each and freemen's sons £1-5-3 each. This is like making interest against the next election.

June 6th. The election at Preston is carried on with great vigour on both sides and have polled several days. Horrocks is 338 votes. The Earl of Derby's candidates 321 each and it is reported that Horrocks will gain the day he being supported by the Corporation. The Earl of Derby has considered the Borough almost his own for nearly 30 years.

June 15th. Preston election is over and Stanley and Houghton are returned. Horrocks has lost the day. The numbers were Stanley 772, Houghton 767, Horrocks 739. It is said that Horrocks polled all that he had and the others did not, having some which they did not poll.

July 6th. There was a town’s meeting today at the Chapel about the moles and their catcher there being much talk about that affair and it is likely to be an endless cause of dispute and falling out about. Some being for doing one way & some another as best suits their own interests.

July 25th. There was a sale at Galgate today of an Estate of about 20 acres belonging to William Procter at the Smith Green and it sold for £1314. William has had it about 12 years and he gave £817 for it and he bought the tithe afterwards for about £60 so he had gained in 12 year upwards of £400.

August. It has been reported many times that at Dolphinholme Factory they spin very badly and make bad stuff and that they do not keep their wheels in order and the worst account says they lose £100 per week. They employ about 150 hands in all and some at a very great wage. There is 30 woolcombers and 4 assistants who earn £40 per wee every week, a blacksmith 25/- per week, a clerk £50 per year. Engineer £2-2s per week & several others at a great price but the wages of the commonality is very low. One of the masters has said that if they had the wool for nothing their yarn would not pay the workmen's wage so by that it is doing very badly. They spin no more than 16 packs per week though the other company spun about 30 with the same hands. So by all accounts they are doing very badly and unless they mend very soon will be bred and liver up with loss.

August 24th. A few days since two large seafish were caught - one near the Thorn Bush below Glasson Point and the other about the buoys. The name of them is not yet ascertained. In this country some people call them porpoises, some call them bottle fish, and other different names. One of them was brought to Lancaster and the other landed at the Thorn Bush. One of them is 21 feet 10 inches long & the other 24 feet 10 inches long and about 14 feet in circumference in the thickest place. There is much talk about them and many people have gone for the purpose of looking at them, but I have no good description of them only about the taking & killing of them which is retailed out at great lengths but it seems so horrid and barbarous that I do not choose to retail it over here at any length save only that they were killed with pitchforks and scythes and other mixed weapons. They made the water as red as blood for many yards. They are reported to be worth £40 each and are cutting up for oil.

The 27th of this month was the appeal day at Lancaster about the Horse Act and Dogs. I did not hear that any appealed about dogs or work horses, but about saddle horses many appealed but very few got off. The Commissioners made the appellants take an oath to answer any question that was asked of them and then they asked if they never rode to see a friend and if they had they were to pay but some swore through all and got off. There is only one saddle horse paid for in Wyresdale at this time but it is expected that next year a great number will be brought into the list of Saddle Horses. The tax on such horses is 20/- a year and ten percent on that tax. The tax on work horses is 2/- each per year. The tax on our dogs is 3/- each dog per year. If one person have 2 curs they are 5/- each dog etc.

The was a sale of land in Ellel at the latter end of the month belonging to General Pennington of Hampson. There were two estates, one at Hampson Green and the other upon Ellel moor called Chipping road tenement consisting of 44 acres of land statute measure & a good house and barn which sold for £627 to Ed. Rigby Esq. of the Grange. The estate at Hampson was 36 acres statute measure and was sold to one Fox in Cockerham for the sum of £1500.

September 16th. Dolphinholme Factory. The company giving out little wages to the people employed in the factory and the people discontented many of them have left the place being hired to another factory below Inglewhite called Brooksbottom, some families getting 10/- a week more than at Dolphinholme. The best family at Dolphinholme would have staid if they would have advanced them 1/6 a week which was not agreed to though at the same time they were in great want of hands. It is said that Hadwen who is chief actor at Dolphinholme is a very quick promiser but a very slow performer, and he will say anything and observe nothing as he ought to do. So many hands have left them that they were at the end of last week obliged to stop one third of the frames that had been at work since they begun and when they had the most at work they had not above half of the frames in the factory at work. The wages of the persons employed in the factory are not sufficient for their subsistence. It is said that their wages for three weeks will only keep them a fortnight. But the company propose to begin and keep a shop wherein they will fit the persons employed in the factory with necessaries at prime cost and stop their wages every 3 weeks so it is supposed that that shop will get all the people's wages and there will be nothing left for any other persons. They set a shop not a year since to one Jonathan Speakmen at near £10 per year and now they have given him notice to quit but as he was not willing they will set up another shop against him and ruin him if they can.

It is reported that the factory people are especially lousy and dirty. One row of houses has taken or gotten the name of Lousy Row, a very scandalous name. On the other side Wyre all the better sort live and so it is by some called Quality Row and Quality street by others.

Sept. 11th. James Sheppard of Lower Wyresdale who died last week was this day buried at Churchtown. A man of good circumstances in this world but of a fretfull impatient disposition of mind.

Sept 20th. Thos. Townley's folk reared a building which they called a parlour and at night they had some drink and so became quarrelsome in their cups and got to fighting and Thos Winder and Wm Bibby got each a couple of black eyes.

Sept. 21st. A great flood in the Wyre today greatly damaged the weir at Dolphinholme by pit falling the the apron or tail of the weir and blowing it up. It was supposed that the apron of the weir was laid so low that it could never pit fall it or wash the gravel away below the weir but that the apron would always be covered a considerable depth with water but some floods have proved the contrary for now the bed of the river is worn some feel deeper below the weir than it was when the weir was made.

Sept 24th. At Dolphinholme today all the folk in the factory turned out in the morning for an increase of wages. They all went from the factory up Lodgholm and towards Cawthorne's. Steel and Hadwen, the masters did not know what steps to take but Steel went and got before them and would have stopped them or persuaded them to turn back but one of them run by him and the rest ran after like a flock of unlucky sheep. They shouted and huzza's very hard. In the afternoon they came back and played at ball and the factory stood still all day. They are in a very critical way at Dolphinholme they want hands very ill and those that they have are leaving them every day.

Sept 29th. At Dolphinholme Factory all the workmen & others are come into the Factory again without any advanced of wages. They say that they will try their masters for three weeks more and trust to their generosity. When they turned out 50 or 60 of them went all in company to Lancaster to Captain Hinde to be for more wages, but he had no hand with the factory, it was his son and he was at Liverpool so they came back as they went. A rough ragged company like as if some poor house had been broken loose.

There has been upwards of 20 men repairing the weir this 2 or 3 days, fixing the apron down again and stopping the leak by puddling. They have driven a row of piles just below the lower edge of the apron.

Cawmill wear is also washed out so that there is only 2 whole paves left in the weir. It was repaired only about 2 months since.

October 4th. There was buried this day at Wyresdale Chapel Agnes Parker wife of Robert Parker of Greenbank aged 48, after an illness of 19 weeks. Her loss much lamented by her husband and children.

On the 21st of September two young men were drowned near Glasson they being it is supposed drunk. They went from Pearhall for the purpose of wading over Lune to Orton at which it was a very great fresh flood and so rough that a boat could not venture over and it was dark at night and in making the attempt both were drowned. There was nobody present and none thought that they would have been so mad as to make the attempt as it was at that time impossible either to wade or swim over or get over in a boat. They have both been found since.

October 5th. Joshua Bibby of Marshaw came today gathering the Land Tax and Window money and other assessed taxes, there being several new taxes that take place this year, as the tax on dogs which in Wyresdale raises the sum of £9 and the Horse Tax 2/- per work horse, there being 133 entered which raises the sum of £13-6s. There is only 1 saddle horse entered in Wyresdale.

On the 3rd October two justices, Stainbank & Rigby came through Wyresdale to view the roads and to take measures with us accordingly, the roads not being fine enough for some newly sprung up gentlemen in this country (Hadwen of Dolphinholme).

Some time since John Drinkall of the Abystead vaccary let his farm to John Swindlehurst of the Little Cragg End in Ellel for the sum of £20 per year and now John Swindlehurst rues and declares he will not have it.

October 11th. Last week died at Newton, Samuel Harrison, a friend, brother to Jonathan Harrison who died some years since.

October 12th. A tremendous thunderstorm with hail & rain at Lancaster. The Lightning was vivid and the thunder load and near and the hail fell so fast that the like was scarcely ever seen. The hail stones were very large and came with such force that is was expected all the windows would be broken. The streets were covered white in a few minutes. The storm was of short duration but it made the channels run so as to be hardly passable. There was a very slender fair and not much to do amongst the clothiers.

There was a pulling race between the 3 mile stone and Burrow Bridge, it being a mile and a piece, between Kettlewell, butcher of Lancaster and a man from Manchester for 50 guineas. The man from Manchester won the race by about 200 or 300 yards. Kettlewell's horse though higher than the other yet had no chance, for the other went so fast that it kept all the other horses on full gallop. There were about 100 horses and perhaps 1000 people present at the race. It is said that a deal of people are taken in, Kettlewell being thought sure to win the race.

At the Abystead there has been no bridge over the Wyre for some years, the old one having been washed away and broken so many times as at last to be quite unrepairable, but great complaints having been made the town at last agreed to make a new one. Thomas Procter being the supervisor this year, he and some others proposed to have a Spring Bridge which would they said be cheaper and stronger than a single Cale Baulk. They bought wood and have made a bridge but have not yet laid it up and as some people say it will do not good and others say it is the best bridge that could be made of wood. The bridge is a deal plank 4 inches think and 12 inches broad & arched being 3 feet higher in the middle than at the ends. It is 20 yards long.

The new Parliament met some time since and the Kings Speech being read an address was voted without any contradiction, the King being desirous that peace should be established whenever the French Republic should agree to accept fair and moderate terms. Lord Malmsbury has gone over as Ambassador to Paris to treat with the convention there and offer them such proposals as the English are willing to make but it is doubtful that this Government will not offer such terms as the Republicans will acceed to.

In the meanwhile this Government spread the alarm of an Invasion which they say the French are intending to make and are making vast preparations for but I don't believe that the French intend any such thing seriously. I believe it is all a scheme of this Government to raise both more men and more money and the Chancellor of the Exchequer has made a proposal to raise 102,000 men this year viz 60,000 new militia to be raised by the Country as usual and 15000 for the Army and Navy to be raised bt the taxed houses and 20,000 horsemen to be raised out of those that pay for saddle horses, every tenth man being to go and then all the gamekeepers in the Kingdom is to go they being calculated at 7000. All this vast force is to be trained and to be in readiness against the French make a descent on out coast.

Serjeant Adair has obtained leave to bring in a Bill for the relief of the Quakers in the case of Tithes putting it out of the Claimants power to imprison them while they have any property left and also that their affirmation shall be taken in criminal cases, but this latter part I do not wish to get forward.

Richard Timothy and I viewed Dolphinholme Estate today and reckoned it to 98 1/2 acres of arable pasture and meadow land besides about 15 acres of wood. We supposed the place would keep 28 gails and mow 18 acres plough 16 acres per year.

12 cows will make per year - £60 6 Beasts to sell every year - £48 35 loads of meal at 30/- per load - £54

                                               £160

Clearing Poor Taxes Constables rolls Land & other Taxes Tithe etc - £20 Servants & Housekeeping & Bills - £20 Interest for £300 at 4 per cent - £12

                                                                       			£52									   
                                                                      	                       £108

Rent £100

Leaving for profit id the rent be no more than £100 a year - £8

On the 27th my father & Thomas want to Garstang to talk to Robert Michinson about taking the farm at Dolphinholme. He was very kindly but did not fix a rent of the place and so they did not take it.

October 25th. Cawthorne's estate called the Coat was sold today to Justice Butler for the sum of £3440. It is let for about £80 per annum.

The Surveyors of Wyresdale on the 24th of this month went to view the road above Catshaw and found it in tolerable repair, only one place they concluded must be widened forthwith & so people are warned in to go and work there on the 31st of this month. This is the only place that the justices found fault with when they came to view the roads in the beginning of this month.

The Abystead bridge gets [no] more forward and so lies broken upon the bank of the river. They propose to buy more wood for sprungers underneath. Some are for buying the best oak tree that can find and others are against it.

The Bridge was viewed on the 31st of this month by the Surveyors of the roads and they agree to buy 2 five inch planks and 12 inches broad and 30 feet long for springers in the room of those that are broken and they proposed to have it laid up on the 8th of November.

The Parliament Sergeant Adair has brought in a Bill for the relief of the Quakers which was read a first time. The Militia Bill also gets forward and all the other Bills for raising men are likely to go forward without much opposition.

November. On the 1st part of Cawmill Wear was washed out by a big flood.

Some time since the Corporation of Preston & some of the inhabitants entered into a combination to reduce the price of butter which was at the enormous sum of one shilling per lb so they bound themselves in a penalty not to by butter at above 11d per lb but that scheme not having the desired effect and markets continuing as high as ever they therefore would try another method and they hired one Christopher Marten to buy butter over the Sands and bring it to Preston & sell it in the market to a certain class of people at 8 1/2 d per lb but in this they will lose considerably as butter cannot be bought at that price in any country.

November 17th. The Abystead bridge was laid up today, there having been no bridge there for upwards of a year. This Bridge is not yet finished, it wanting the Pebbles putting on and fixing down and fastening so that it may not tumble over.

The road got widened above Catshaw and now perhaps it may suit little Hadwen and the Justices. Hadwen having indicted it some time since but the justices pretended that they could pass it over if it was widened in that particular place above Catshaw so now we shall see how matters will go about this affair.

The supplimentary militia Bill is passed and it takes all in from 15 to 55 years of age which will increase the lists very much. In Wyresdale there was but about some 68 in the old lists but this will almost double that number. Some say every tenth man must be polled, some say every seventh man & some suppose that men will cost £20 each.

Of these new Militia there is to be 5160 raised in Lancashire which is more than any county in England except Middlesex and Yorkshire. It is said that this Bill creates much uneasiness in the country and the great towns and indeed well it may for it is a very heavy burden upon the people and who have probably a right to complain if they have a right to do nothing else, but why should a part of the people choose Governors and the Governors make laws for the whole nation - yea - govern them with a rod of iron and heap burden upon burden on an oppressed people already pressed down and groaning under former loads. I am for my part surprised that people of all denominations throughout this oppressed nation should so lamely bear so many and such heavy burdens and so many oppressive laws and so many taxes for now the boasted freedom and liberty of Englishmen is all done away and not so much as a shadow of either remains. We are now nothing but abject slaves subject to the will and caprice of a despotical tyrannical Government. But I plainly see what the end will be if the people will bear with it and they are so abject and abased that they will bear anything without offering to kick their masters or throw off their loads and if they will bear, and continue blindly sulyed to the whim and caprice of their Governors they may and their or I may say our Governors will have all we are possessed of and then make us all slaves and use us as the poor Africans are used in the West Indies; and this is my opinion that they will have all, and that is what they are aiming at.

In Ellel they have lotted for a Militia man, one of their old ones having deserted. The man that is lotted is to serve 5 years either by substitute or else serve himself. The whole Township entered into a subscription to hire a substitute. There was 96 men in the list and the subscribed 3/- each.

In Ellel there is about 20 Hackney horses entered and one is to be lotted out of every ten to serve as cavalry which will cost those that have saddle horse entered £4 or £5 each, but in Wyresdale is only 1 saddle horse entered though I suppose they will not escape so easily next year.

This year the Horse Tax of 2/- per horse took place and the Dog tax of 3/- per cur dog & 5/- for dogs of other denominations and one Christopher Gates of the Summer House Head in this Dale refused to enter his dog and the commissioners being informed thereof Christopher was threatened to be tried and which frightened him so that he went to Lancaster to get it entered but could not and he went three times to Lancaster and the third time he got it entered but it cost him 7/6 and thought he escaped very well.

Thomas Kitchen of Lentworth vaccary a very warm advocate for the war and this Government and stark mad. Loyal and hot against the French had two horses one which was a young one and not wrought much but so much that its shoulders were sore so he entered but one, but it being much talked about in the Country and John Drinkall a great news monger and a Republican talked of this horse to Francis Smith the assessor of the Land Tax and Window money and other assessed taxes and John told Francis that unless he made Thos Kitchen enter his other horse he would inform of Francis for neglecting his duty whereupon Thomas Kitchen went to Lancaster and got his horse entered. But Thomas was so vexed that he would inform of John Drinkall who had a dog sometime the last year but had none when the account was taken fo the dogs, so Thomas Kitchen threatened George Drinkall that if he did not force John Drinkall to enter his dog he would make a complaint against him so George was frightened and went to John Drinkall to talk about his dog and asked John what he might do and John told him he might do as he thought proper but if he George Drinkall, made any disturbance about the dog he, John Drinkall, would make a complaint against him for suffering William Cragg of the Abysead to escape entering his horses, he having four and entered but one & so all is dropped about these things at this time.

A load of meal at Lancaster 240lb at Preston 240lb

 ditto  wheat   		ditto     280lb     	ditto  220lb
 ditto Potatoes  	ditto    3 bushels  	ditto  3 1/2 bushels

A pound of Butter at Lancaster is 18oz at Preston & Garstang 16oz.

Nov 28th. Today Francis Smith Assessor for Wyresdale for the year 1795 came about taking an account of all the farmers in Wyresdale that farmed £70 per year or had an Estate worth £35 per annum as list of which he was to return to the Commissioners of Lonsdale Hundred at the weekend every one farming £70 a year or having £35 per year of their own land will be obliged to enter a saddle horse which will be 22 shillings a year, and at this time there is a bill passed for the raising of men to defend this Kingdom against the Republic of France which threatens an invasion of this country or at least our Governors pretend so, and therefore to be ready in case the French should put their threats into execution the Parliament have passed several Bills for the raising of men and one of these Bills is for the raising od 20,000 irregular Cavalry, to be lotted out of these that keep horses for the use of riding, and they suppose every farmer that farms £70 per year keeps his saddlehorse and therefore whether he keeps one for that purpose or not he is compelled to enter one as such, and these 20000 men and horses takes every tenth horse and man. The whole country is to be put into classes of 10 saddlehorses each and one of these is to be lotted for the cavalry, both horse and master. It is thought that this affair will cost those that have one saddlehorse £5 each as it is supposed that a man and a horse will cost £50.

December. A Bill has been passed by the Parliament of this Kingdom for the raising of 15000 men for the Army and Navy, to be raised by the country viz from the taxed houses according to the number and Wyresdale, Slyne and Hest have to find 2 men. The number of houses in Wyresdale that is taxed is 83, in Slyne & Hest are only 37 so Wyresdale will have to find one man and to pay something more than one third the price towards another which will be a heavy burden upon the people to be paid and collected the same way that the poor rates are.

On the 3rd Dec. the Wyresdale people with those of Slyne and Hest hired two men for the Navy, one called John Dilworth for £25-4s and the other for £24-3s. The latter was an inhabitant of Garstang with a wife and 2 children and another in great forwardness. John Dilworth had been hired before for Garstang for £20 but they refusing a billet and he thinking he could get more offered himself again and was hired by Wyresdale people. Both of the men was sworn in and part of their money paid them, about £8 or £9 each in hand, the rest to be paid when they went on Shipboard. These two men cost the Township £49-7s. in Bounty money besides a great deal spent about hiring them. I suppose there was spent about £3 or £4 as there was many of them and they drank very hard.

Estimate as to value of Thomas Bateson's higher ground:-

The rent offered for this farm of about 33 or 34 acres was £36 but Thomas Bateson wanted £38 and the tenant was to mow 4 1/2 acres and plough 7 acres per year, leaving 11 1/2 acres for pasture. We will suppose 1 horse = 2 gails and 2 cows=2 gails, 4 stirks[*heifer or bullock between 1 and 2 years old*] 2 gails & 4 Twinters nearly 3 gails = in all 9 gaits. Corn will make per year 4 kilnfull each year at 5 loads of meal

that is 20 loads at 30/- per load - £30

2 cows to make £5 each                         	-      	£10 
4 Heifers to sell each year                    	-      	£40      -   	£80-0-0

Expenditure. There will be besides the rent

3 stirks to buy each year                      	-      	£10 x 3
Clearing of the place per year                 	-      	£5
Rent bid                                       		-      	£36       	-   	£51-0-0

-------- £29-0-0

Expenditure

Cash to be laid out on stock. 1 horse - £10 2 Heifers @ £12 each - £24 4 Twinters & £8 each - £32

                                         		4 stirks & £4 each    		-         £16 = £82

Interest on £82 at 4 per cent. £3-5-0

Gain for the year - £25-15-0

If the times remain good the live stock at the end of 3 years will be of the same value as in the estimate so there may be gained by the place in 3 years. £77-5-0 but if times get worse as very probably they may there may be a diminuation in the value of

4 Twinters - say £3 each - £12 4 stirks - say £1 each - £4 2 heifers - say £2 each - £8 2 cows - say £4 each - £8

                                -----

£32-0-0

Gain in 3 years if times be bad - £45-5-0

There is a tolerable prospect of being 3 crops of moderately good corn but if they should be failing crops the place will be too dear.

Dec 12th. About 3 weeks ago the wife of Wm Clarkson of Hathornthwaite vaccary being in a very poor state of health as she has been for many years but somewhat worse than usual for some months past two girls went to visit her and she was sitting by the fire, and she not being able to stir much about, she desired the girls to go upstairs and make the bed, which they not readily complying with she rather scowled at them so that they went and when they were gone she got up about something out of her chair and being subject to fainting fits she fainted and fell into the fire where she laid for some time before the girls knew of her dreadful situation. When they came downstairs they found he so most dreadfully burnt that they did not expect her surviving but she is alive at this time though not expected to recover. Her gown and stays were burnt off her back.

The navy men hired for Wyresdale, Slyne and Hest will cost in all about £52-10s with expenses, so Wyresdale share will be £36-6-3.

In Ellel that have hired two men at about £30 or £31-10s each.

It is thought the Cavalry Bill will not get forward in the form it now is in, nobody understanding it. The ministry talk of making another Act to explain the first. The Quaker's Bill sticks in the House of Lords and is put off from one time till another.

Lord Malesbury, the English Ambassador at Paris makes no progress in making peace, neither side being it appears sufficiently humbled yet.

Our government amuse us with talking about the French invading this nation, but I think it is only a scheme to make this nation raise more men and more money. Our government I think are our worst enemies. They aim at having all and they will have all if we submit to all they would impose upon us. But Pitt has found out a new mode of Finance viz that evreyone shall subscribe a fifth part of their income for the use of the next year and to be paid again in 4 years with interest at 5 percent. There is £25,000,000 to be raised in this was instead of a loan.

A letter has been received from John Richmond out of America and he likes very well. He has purchased 144 statute acres of very good land for something more than £600 of English money. The estate he has bought is near a town called Pakepoy about 90 miles north of New York on the East side of Hudson's river which is navigable above a hundred miles further than Pakipoy.

George Parker has bought an Estate somewhere near to John Richmond's and he wants men as servants to go over. He will give them £15 a year and pay for their passage, but whether he means English of New York currency is not known. An English guinea will pay £1. 17s at New York.

Conditions as to letting a Farm.

Dec 13th. Yesterday my father took Thos Bateson's Higher Ground all but the old field house & gardens. The conditions are:-

The Rent to be £36 per year. The Term 3 years. The Tenant to clear half of Thos. Bateson's whole estate to the Poor Rate and to pay half of the Land Tax. The Moles according to the number of acres. The Landlord to fence the old field round. John Bateson to have manure for his garden. The Tenant to have the ash midden from the house. Thos Bateson to have permission to lead away several heaps of mould cast up on the Bent. Thos Bateson to have permission to turn his Beasts out until towards the time the grass comes. Timothy Cragg to have the same permission at the term end. The manure found on coming on to be set where the tenant pleases. The 1st and 2nd years all the manure to be set in the meadow & the 3rd year to be left in the fold.

The people of Wyresdale, Slyne and Hest hired 2 men for the navy. One was a Garstang man and the other was called John Dilworth and was hired By Garstang people for a navy man at £20 before the time. But at the time they were to be raised Wyresdale people hired him and got him sworn in and then Garstang people were vexed and came and took Dilworth from Lancaster and put him in the House of Correction at Preston and so it was voised in the country that Wyresdale people had lost their man and Ellel folk were very full of it because they were vexed that Wyresdale folk had hired men for less money than the could do. Upon these reports Joshua Bibby the Constable went to Lancaster to the High Constable and made him acquainted with it and he said that Garstang folk had no business with the man seeing he was hired and sworn in, but they would go to the Regulating Captain and see what must be done. So they went and the Captain sent Joshua to Garstang to acquaint that if they did not set Dilworth at Liberty they would be processed against according to Law so Joshua went and told them and they said not much to him but wanted to know something about paying the expense of putting the man in the house of Correction.

Dec 18th. Today Wm Kelsall's youngest son was buried at Wyresdale meeting. He died of the small pox aged 14 years. The small pox is very rife at this time through the country and of the worst kind. In Garstang they are very mortal and nearly one half die. There were 4 neighbours there with 2 children each and they each lost one & the other got very finely through. At Galgate a young woman aged 22 died of the small pox a few days since.

1797

January 11th. The small pox very general in Wyresdale both natural and also by inoculation. All do well by inoculation as yet.

The new Militia to be raised are to be balloted for on the 23rd of this month at Lancaster. It takes 1 man out of 10 that are liable to serve. In Wyresdale there will be 7 to raise and in Ellel 14 1/2 men will be wanted and in Quernmore is is said 7. In Lower Wyresdale 5, which are polled. In Cleveley there was 14 liable to serve and they were put to another township and 2 out of Cleveley were polled.

On the 18th the men in Wyresdale met at the Chapel to enter into a club and subscribe money for to raise the new militia men and about 60 entred that day. They subscribed half a guineas a man.

One the 23rd the people of Lonsdale Hundred were balloted for at Lancaster. Wyresdale had to find 7 and the lots fell as follows-

Myself - David Cragg Richard Birkett of Bagman House, halter Hy Knowles of the Moor head, halter Robert Clarkson of the Cawtongue, mason Thos Bradley, at the Borderside, farmer George Drinkall of Marshaw, farmer Wm Simpson of Tarnbrook, shoemaker

There is already several men hired as substitutes for Wyresdale, both in Wyresdale and other places at £8-13s each.

Jan 30th - Notice has been given to the Constables to put off any further proceedings about the supplementary Militia for a month.

Servant men are very dear this year and are now about from £11 to £13 per year each, but at this day men will hire at one place & if anybody afterwards after them a few shillings more wages they will send the first master word to look for another man for they will not come.

Now when wheat is cheap the shopkeepers sell us more the 5 1/2 lbs of the best flour for a shilling & 6 1/2 of seconds.

Last year about the same time, wheat was between 60/- and 70/- per load and flour was made of all one sort and was sold at 3 3/4 lbs for a shilling. I believe there is 5/- spent in flour this months for 1/- in the same month last year.

The cotton and wollen trades are most exceedingly bad and low. Scarcely worth following but that people in such trades cannot turn themselves to any other branch of trade.

February. The 4th of this month was an appeal day at Lancaster about the horse tax, that is of pleasure horses for the purpose of riding and several in Wyresdale thought to appeal but they being called up and Jos. Whitehead appealing and he could not get off unless he would swear that he never rode to any other place than the church or market. The business of appealing was carried on thus:-

When they went before the court the person appealing was sworn to answer whatever questions he should be asked and a shilling was demanded which he was forced to pay before he should be examined. They would not speak to him before he paid 1/-. When the shilling was paid he was asked how much land he farmed and whither he rode to, and then he was asked if he never during the last year rode to see any friend or relation or went to any distant fair, which he had done sometimes so he could not get off and the rest seeing his fate did not appeal and so saved their shillings and submitted to this arbitrary tax, which in my opinion does not extend to farmers by the true meaning of the Act, but the justices in this country are overbearing and oppressive men and strain the Laws beyond their proper bounds.

Feb 18th. Ortner wood was sold at Lancaster this night. A deal of company was there an the whole was sold together to Matthew Butler and Joseph Whiteside for the sum of £699 to be paid on the 1st February 1798. All the wood to be cut down and carried away before the 13th February 1798.

Feb 28th. Every kind of trade is dull and a great number of hands turned out of employ in the Cotton trade and many Bankruptcy's have taken place.

March 2nd. The supplementary militia were sworn in today at Lancaster. Richard Birkett of the Bagman house in Wyresdale was one that was balloted to serve in the supplementary militia and he being one called a Quaker though not in unity with friends, but he wither through poverty or conscience refused to enter into the Club, and when he was balloted he did not hire a substitute nor intended to serve himself and he appeared at the time and place of swearing in, and when he was called upon he refused to swear and had no substitute so the justices threatened to grant a warrant to strain his goods, which will undoubtedly be the case if he do not sign over his effects to the benefit of his creditors and if so then he will be imprisoned for some time.

March 8th. A fast and prayer day by order of Government to implore the Almighty to assist them - that is the English to Kill and murder all the French and conquer France.

March 10th. There is much talk about this time about the French invading this nation which our Government seems to fear they will do and great consternation prevails through the Country but for my part, though I think they may come if they please, yet, I am none afraid of them, nor no man has need to fear but those that live in ease, plenty, and luxury and tyrranize over the poor people for let the French come and set up what sort of Government they please it cannot well be worse than ours is at this time, but only a little time since the French landed about 1400 galley slaves and convicts on the coast of Wales which have been taken prisoners as they were put on shore without any arms to defend themselves with if they had had a mind so to do.

There is another thing that has caused great alarm and that is the Bank of England has stopped payment. They will cash no more bills, they having as a suppose no money on hand, but will pay all with paper and have small bills. What will be the consequence of this in not known but it is supposed that very soon there will be no money left and all payments will be made in paper which is unfortunately worth nothing.

The Quaker's tithe Bill has passed the House of Commons. There was a division on the 3rd reading & there appeared for the Bill passing into a Law 33 against it 33 therefore the members being equal the Speaker gave his casting vote in favour of the Quakers. It is thought is will not pass the House of Lords.

Note: It was only the 2nd reading of the Bill and there was sometime after a motion made for the Bill being read that day 6 months which was done accordingly and so the Bill was lost.

March 25th

There was a very large ox shown at Lancaster today, supposed to be the largest ever seen in England. The property of John Ibbetson of Bedale in Yorkshire. It is rising 7 years old and is 6 3/4 yards long, 6 yards round his chest, 19 hands high, 12 1/2 feet from his cheek to his bullock, 5 ft 6 in from the top of his shoulder to his Bresket, 3 ft 2 in between his hips and weight upwards of 2 tons 5 cwt 8 lbs. I gave 3d to see this Beast.

The Assized begun at Lancaster this day when 16 prisoners were to take their trial for various offences besides a number of causes to be determined this assize about various trivial affairs.

April. On the 3rd of this month there was a man hanged at Lancaster for murder & robbery near Bolton le Moors. In the 1st one Middleton of Liverpool was tried at Lancaster on a charge of wilfully setting fire to a warehouse which was burnt down and several more adjoining houses and many lives lost. The trial continued till 11 o'clock at night and the jury after deliberating about half an hour brought in a verdict of not guilty. It is said the whole court believed he was guilty. There were 4 barrister employed against him and he had 3.

April 8th. Came on to be tried today at Lancaster a cause between John Blackburn, plaintiff and John Gaskell, defendant about a footpath through plaintiffs and defendants fields. The ground and path in dispute is at the side of the river Conder near Ellel Chapel. When one goes from Galgate to the Ward houses they pass over the Conder over a footbridge and into a field on a path which in a few roods turns into the lane again to the Ward Houses and this disputed path when we get over the Bridge in the field (this field belongs to the defendant Croskell) this path turns to the left down the field and a small corner of it and then goes into the plaintiffs fields. The plea was that there was no road there, but that the defendant placed a stile in his own fence into the plaintiffs field where no stile had ever been before & this stile induced people to travel that way. The was only 3 evidences examined on the plaintiffs side viz John Gardner, mason, & Thos Harrison & they proved nothing but that they had frequently gone that way themselves at all times of the year. The plaintiff was non-suited.

May. The most conversation at this time is about a meeting on board the fleet at Spithead and at St Helena the whole of the common sailors being combined together for the redress of grievances which they labour under. They received orders to put to sea and instead of that every man refused and not one ship weighed anchor but every ships crew chose two delegates each who met together and transacted business for the whole crews. The grievances they complained of were too little wages, too little meal etc and they therefore demanded an increase of wages from 22/6 per month to 28/- and 16 oz to the lb of meat instead of 12 oz as before and a more equal distribution of prize money, and not to be whipped by any tyrannical petty officer on little of no real offence and to be pardoned for this affair and an act of Parliament passed granting these things.

Most of these things were granted, their wages raised to 28/- per month and 16 oz to the lb of meat and a free parson by the Kings Proclamation but no Act of Parliament brought forward but all was quiet and tranquil on board the whole fleet. On the 7th or 8th of this month an express came for the fleet to sail immediately but not a single ship moved and the delegates from the different ships came to the London of 90 guns & Admiral Colpoise refused to let them come on board and told them that if they in the least attempted to mutiny he would fire upon them. The sailors insisted the delegates should come on board. The Admiral ordered the marines aft and ordered them to fire which some of them did and others grounded their arms & 3 or 4 of the sailors were wounded. The sailors then got arms and fired on the officers and killed one and wounded several more and the delegates got on board & put the Admiral in Irons etc and it is said he will be tried by a court martial of the common sailors & other accounts say he was to be hanged or shot the day after. The greatest consternation prevails. The reason for this second mutiny is that there is no bill brought forward in Parliament granting what was before promised and they did not think themselves safe without an Act being passed in their favour.

June 9th. The mutinous sailors at Spithead and St Helier are pacified and put to sea but there has a more dreadful disaffection taken place on the river Thames and Medway among the sailors at Sheerness & Chatham run the river. They insist upon terms quite out of reason it is said & their grievances cannot be settled. The government will not grant them what they want and all intercourse is stopped in the river. The sailors plunder every ship that comes up or down the river and the batteries along the river are manned and furnaces in readiness to heat red hot fire at the ships if the Mutineers make an attempt to sail and yesterday I heard that Parliament was passing a Bill declaring the Mutineers to be out of the Kings protection and that they were traitors and pirates & should be reduced by force. There is over 20 ships of war in this mutiny, 8 or 9 of them being ships of the line. I suppose there is between 7000 and 8000 & it is a question of whether the other fleets will fight them. It is likely enough for this fleet to sail away and deliver themselves up to France.

July. There is a new budget of taxes brought forth which will lie pretty hard on some people. There is to be 3/- additional on work horses making 5/- per work horse & next he proposes a tax of 2/6 per piece on silver or metal watches & 10/- on gold ones & 5/- per piece for clocks so we must pay for knowing how the time comes on.

On the 21st was buried at Forton Chapel Richard Ashburn of Lower Wyresdale opposite Cleveley Mill, he having been a cripple for many years being hurt in a marl pit. He could not walk at all but rode in a cart and went to Lancaster almost every week since I can remember where he would drive into any part of the town and transact business of any sort & make his market, that is buy and sell as well as any person there. He was very temperate and of a cheerful disposition and patient under bodily affliction. Though he was unable to stir from one place to another without carrying or being in his cart he constantly employed himself in making Bee Hives, and covering rollers for Scorton factory folk, thereby earning much money. He had a farm under Lord Archibald Hamilton which by his death is out of lease, it being the second farm that is out of lease by due course of nature under Lord A Hamilton. It is said that somebody had been at the steward before my uncle died to take the farm which to some may seem strange but which I believe to be true.

July 24th. Yesterday John Field and John Albright from Lancaster were at our house on a visit having requested to become a member among the Quakers.

August 1st. The newspapers give account of very dreadful storms of lightening and thunder and much hurt having bee done thereby in many parts of England about the middle of last month.

August. The duty upon watches commences the 5th day of this month. The tax is 2/6 per watch. Servants employed in husbandry are exampled.

Dolphinholme Factory weir at the commencement of this company taking the factory underhand about 2 years ago was made low and very firm and was thought to be so perfect as to stand a long time, but almost every flood did it some damage and now the tail of the weir, all the planks are so smashed & crushed and battered by the water, stones and ice falling upon them that they are quite done, so last winter the proprietors seeing the damaged state of the tail of the weir resolved to have it replaced with stone which was last week laid down, that is, all the tail but there is yet a _____ to be raised up with Ashlar stones to the top of the weir, but at present it cannot be done by reason of the water being too high.

August 14th. A great flood in the Wyre which washed Dolphinholme Factory weir entirely down, every bit of it bodily together and nothing is left but the stone tail of the weir which was put in lately. The reason of the weir being washed away is this, there was a small space left between the new tail of the weir and the weir and the water falling off the weir with inconceivable violence wrought down the space and undermined the weir and blew it up altogether and now the water runs along the old course undisturbed. The factory is of course stopped and great numbers of hands are employed in erecting a temporary weir till one more substantial can be made and the waters lower. This weir was thought to be so firm and well finished as to stand a long time but in the course of less than 2 years after many considerable damages had been sustained and repaired is now entirely swept away so headstrung & impatient of obstruction is this river Wyre.

September. The assizes ended at Lancaster on the 2nd of this month and there was 20 crown prisoners tried, 6 of which were acquitted.

On the 16th of this month George Bibby of the Lee being at Lancaster and was loading a pack of wool into a cart in the Bear & Staff yard. He was on the top of the cart and pulling up at the woolpack and the Ostler was lifting below and a George was pulling as hard as he could his hands slipped their hold and he fell backwards off the cart and light on the pavement and was dreadfully hurt. His arm was broken between his hand and elbow in one place and his shoulder put out and his collar bone broken and the cup of his shoulder broken. Rawlinson the bone setter was at the Bear & Staff at the time and set his arm and put his shoulder in but by reason of the cup being broken he put it in 3 times before it would bide. The Bonesetter thought he would be able to go home the day after.

At the end of the month the newspapers gave an account that there has been extremely heavy rains in Ireland which has done incredible damage to the crops on the low lands and in England the wet weather has done great damage in the corn especially that which was forward.

The tax on clocks and watches is unproductive all clocks in houses with no more than 6 windows are exempted from the tax. There is only 9 clocks entered in Wyresdale.

October 9th. Masons have been employed all the last week in making a stone weir over Wyre for Dolphinholme factory which they have got in great forwardness. It is a cow weir, the front part of which is a wood arched behind with very large rough Ashlar stone. The weir was finished on the 11th.

The tax on clocks and watches appears to be unproductive especially in Wyresdale for there is only 8 clocks and 3 watches entered in all Wyresdale. The watches belong to Thos. Bateson, Greenbank, Rd Townley, Ortner and Wm Hotkinson, Catshaw.

Joseph Whiteside of Swainshead borrowed a gun of[f] Matthew Butler to shoot some crows and the gun being out of order Joseph got Peter Tomlinson of the Tarnbrook to clean it. Peter took it home and dressed it and a few days ago was bringing it back to Joseph Whitesides and as he was going over the burnyard he met with Cawthorne and others in the path and Cawthorne demanded the gun and Peter refused to deliver it up. Cawthorne seised hold of it and strove to take it by force but was not able and so he called Thomas Stone and they both forced the gun from Peter & then took the gun lock out of his pocket, and thus when they had robbed him in the highway they threatened to make him pay the penalty for carrying a gun.

A few days since there was Whitworth doctor at Dolphinholme and he and Hadwen went a shooting & they met with Cawthorne in our wood and he commanded them to get away but they not being willing he undertook to call them and they him, but a day or two after Hadwen and Hinde & some others went shooting in Ellel and Cawthorne went to stop them and met them in his own woods at Wyresdale about Corless Mill and they had a great brustle but the would not desist. They abused one another for nearly an hour and they threatened to horsewhip Cawthorne. There then 2 pheasants rose up and one of the men took a double barrelled gun & shot them both and put them in a bag. Cawthorne would examine them whether they were hens or cocks & the man threatened if he would not be quiet he would give him a good hiding so Cawthorne desisted and walked off.

An estate belonging to Cawthorne called Escow Beck near Caton was sold this last week. Also some Land and houses about Skerton should have been sold this week but none was sold there was so much roguery on foot and it must not go unless much too dear. It is said that some of his estates in Ellel are advertised for sale.

Cawthorne the tyrant of this neighbourhood has mostly this summer been kept prisoner in his own house he not daring to stir out fro fear of Bailiffs except on the first day of the week when he commonly was out, but now since Micheaelmas he has been often out and showing his despotical authority over the poor country people. The reason of his being at liberty is said to be that all the writs against him are out, the term being ended. He is an uncommon man, one would have thought when he was cashiered for an officer with such infamy and then turned out of the Parliament House, his [affairs] in such confusion as to be forced to sign over his effects, one would have thought all this would have humbled him and made him a peaceable man, but instead of that I think he is worse and worse.

October 21st. News came this week of Admiral Duncan defeating the Dutch Fleet on the coast of Holland taking 9 men of war and 2 frigates after a severe engagement in which many men were killed and wounded.

Capshaw Factory. This factory which has been stopped for some years, I believe about 3 years, was let this summer to a Mr Taylor of Manchester for a term of years. All the wheels to be taken at a fair valuation. 3 men came some months ago to out things in order and boarded at Wm Hotlkinson's and they employed some families in cleaning & putting things in order and when they should have been paid the master workman who should have paid them ran away and it was reported that Taylor was a Bankrupt. So those employed thought they had lost all their work, but about 3 weeks ago Taylor came and the Factory started again. So now all the Factory's in this Country are got to work again.

Cawthorne sold land about Skerton a few days ago for £2000. The Grapes Inn in Lancaster belonging to Cawthorne was offered for sale and about £350 bid but was not sold. They set it up at £500. Cawthorne's debt is £59,000.

A few days ago Peter Tomlinson received a summons from Justice Bradshaw to appear before him at Lancaster on the 28th of this month and answer to the charge brought against him for carrying a gun in a certain field in quest of game without licence the penalty being £20. So accordingly Peter attended taking with him Joseph Whiteside & some others, particularly Rd Huntington who saw the affair of taking the gun. Thomas Stone met them before the justice as the whole evidence against Peter and gave an account of the transaction and of Peter being very saucy. Peter said he was in the footpath and was saucy only in his own vindication. The justice handed a book to Thomas Stone to swear that Peter was out of the path but Thomas would not swear that but threw the book down so the justice told him it was over with him and asked Peter is he had any person to give evidence that he was in the path and he had he said four or five. The justice told him one was sufficient and he pitched upon Rd Huntington who could not then be found so it was referred to that day week when Rd Huntington is to appear.

Peter Tomlinson appeared on the 4th November at Lancaster with Rd Huntington and Richard's evidence cleared Peter of all blame. Thos Stone was there and he would have sworn anything but the justices would not hearken to him. He offered to swear that Rd Huntington was half a mile off when the affair happened but was not suffered.

November. Died on the 18th of this month at an advanced age William Martin of Lower Wyresdale after an illness of about 3 weeks. He was at Lentworth sale the 30th of last month in perfect health but as he went home from the sale he complained of a pain in his back which he thought he could cover with his finger end but it increased and spread over his whole body and he was exceedingly full of pain during the time of this hs last illness. He is to be buried at Wyresdale Chapel the 20th of this month.

Lancaster Canal. November 22nd. Today was a great rejoicing day and much ado made on opening the Lancaster Canal when the first barge load of coals came from Preston to Lancaster and a barge loaded with limestone from Borwick. The canal is now opened from Preston to Borwick or further and beyond Preston it is open for many miles from the far end to this side of Chorley which an abundance of coals and cannel are carried to about 7 miles beyond Preston and are carried on the canal about 7 miles. A barge loaded with coals was sunk at Garstang on the 22nd in consequence of the storm of wind which made the water rough and the barge being heavy laden it kept dibbing & dibbing till it sunk.

December. On the 6th Cawthorne's land at Lower Starbank and the Crag in Ellel should have been sold at Galgate but not many people appearing the sale was put off to a future period. On the 5th all Cawthorne's possessions in the Stakehouses was sold at the Oakenclough for about £1100. Richard Topin bought 2 shares. Roger Kenyon 1 share or lot. Richard Jackson 1 lot & Lawson's steward 1 lot.

All the stakehouses vaccary belongs to different persons in a very extraordinary manner. There is not I believe one farm in it that belongs to one and only one landlord. Cawthorne’s part made about £35 per year. In some farms he claimed one half in others a fourth, an eighth, a sixteenth, a thirtysecond or a sixtyfourth part. Richard Topin bought one lot which brought in 5s 6d per year, was in lease for one life and 21 years after for which he gave £50 which is too much by half or more. There was a great company and the sale cost between £9 and £10 in drink.

The affair about Peter Tomlinson and his gun is very much talked of all along ever since the first and he having come off clear as before said. Now sometime since Lord Archibald heard of the affair and Robert Hutchinson his steward sent for Peter and Joseph Whiteside to come down to him. So they went at Garstang Fair the 22nd of last month and related to him the whole affair. Joseph was desirous of letting the affair rest but the steward would acquaint Lord Archibald with the affair and about a week since Lord Archibald sent Peter to come down to Ashton Hall and he went accordingly and related the whole affair over again to Justice Clayton. It is thought by many that Cawthorne will be proceeded against for robbery, it being a felony to take anything from a man in the highway but I am afraid it will all come to nothing.

There is to be a Thanksgiving Prayer day the 19th of this month throughout Great Britain for the victory over the Dutch Fleet the 11th of October and all other naval victorys since commencement of this just and necessary (bloody and numerous) war and the King will go in great pomp and parade to St Paul’s Cathedral and here the Thanksgiving Prayer there. "Cease ye fools and go no further" "God requires no thanks for must her" We have great reason to be thankful indeed, for only in the action with the Dutch Fleet on the 11th October the English had upwards of 300 killed and 700 wounded. We must needs be thankful for these 700 cripples who perhaps may go a begging all the remainder of their days. Would to God but that the Authors of the war did but experience the hardships of these poor fellows. These men - those heaven born ministers of ours - feel no hardship. They riot in ease & luxury and the cries of the wounded and would not reach their ears, nor the lamentations of the wives and children of the slain.

December 19th. This is the Thanksgiving Payer day by order of the Government. It was badly observed in this country. There were not many people at the chapel. The newspapers are much taken up with the trial of Captain Williamson of the Agincourt man of war for negligence, cowardice and disaffection in the action on the 11th October with the Dutch fleet. He had no men killed or wounded. We have an account of 11 days trial already. It is reported in the papers that a third part of the supplementary militia are to be called up immediately viz 20000 men. The principle subject of conversation at this time is a bill now pending in Parliament to triple the assessed taxes. A man who now pays 3 guineas assessed taxes will be called upon to pay 9 guineas more making the whole 12 guineas. These triple assessment taxes go but badly down in London and most other places but the Bill is not yet passed. It has been read twice and was to be committed on the 18th of this month and to be read a third time as soon as possible after as our heaven born ministers were anxious to have it passed before the Christmas Holy days. It was to undergo many modifications in Committee and made so as to bear lightly on the on the lower and middle classes of the people and lie mostly on those that are best able to pay.

December 23rd. Last week Cawthorne left Wyreside and is gone out of this country. It is said for a few weeks only.

Lancaster Canal. Lancaster canal which was opened on the 22nd of November and since that time several large loads of coals and cannel have been brought to Lancaster and Galgate from Savok a little below Preston and they are sold at Lancaster at 1/- per cwt for cannel and 10d for coals, but it must be observed that only 112lbs is allowed to a hundredweight which is 8 lb less than is usual and customary in this country. Edmund Jackson of Galgate was a captain of a barge but has now thrown up the business for he was himself and a lad and a horse and was allowed only 30/- a week which is too little. There is Lime Kilns already built in various parts along the sides of the canal and more than will be of any use anytime soon for it seems very improbable that a sufficient quantity of coals can be had to supply the country with in any moderate time for all the coals that now come along the canal are first brought down the Douglas and then up the Ribble and landed below Preston and there taken unto the canal barges and until a communication is made over the Ribble at Preston between the two ends of the canal there will not be any great plenty of coals for the country, much less for burning Lime. It has been talked that both ends of the canal will be brought as near to the Ribble at Preston of Walton Bridge & then cart the coals from one end over the Bridge and into the other end a distance of about a quarter of a mile. If this be done it will make a very throng place over Walton Bridge, but this method is only to be pursued until such time as an acquaduct is made over the Ribble which it is computed will cost the sum of £60,000.

Political affairs. There is not much that need be said upon this head except in the line of new taxes and new impositions upon the people, but this new fangled way of raising eight millions of money for the service of the ensuing year is a matter that occasions a great deal of conversation. The ministers scheme is to double, tripple, quadruple and quituple the assessed taxes - all those who pay less than £20 are exempted. Between £20 and £40 to pay half a rate and so on. The Act is not yet passed but those who pay between £40 and £50 assessed taxes are to be quadrupled, that is a man who now pays £40 must pay £200 and those who pay £50 will be quintupled and so must pay £300. If it gets forward in this proposed manner a better tax could not be laid for it lies upon those that are able to pay and is a very likely way to bring about a peace. Charles Gibson of Quernmore Park now pays about £100 assessed taxes and if the new tax takes place he will have £600 to pay.

Col. Cawthorne of Wyreside now pays about £46 and will have to pay £230, which is a deal to pay when a man is worth nothing and perhaps £10000 worse than nothing. Several others will feel the weight of this tax which is to continue only during the war or little longer. Pitt said that farmer's horses he did not mean should be included in the assessed taxes but thought that the farmers could not think it hard if they were doubled. If this be the case farmers work horses will be 10/- per year they being 6/- per year at this time. This is the consequence of an unjust and unnecessary war and which will involve all Europe in ruin. The French have made a calculation that the English nad other nations that have engaged against France this war have lost 2,773,000 men. What effusion of human blood has been shed for the purpose of setting up a King in France. I think the English constitution in its present form cannot subsist many years longer. We are so much involved in Debt, have so much interest to pay for this debt that the nation groans under the continual accumulating burdens that are laid upon them if the French do come and invade this land as they threaten to do I think, it would be no difficult task to conquer this nation. However when the French do come, they will wipe off all old chalks at once. But the French are not come yet nor I believe do intend to come. They only mean to keep us in a continual alarm and make us keep a very strong force up and thereby ruin us by expense, which I believe will soon be the case. This government is on the high road to destruction. Parliament is but a name, the minister rules them at his will, and whatever method, whatever law he proposes, he carries it through the Parliament with a great majority of votes - all Peace men and Pensioners - for no other vote has he.

The pleasure horse tax of 10/- each horse for the purpose of riding was the only tax that ever this country stickled to pay cheerfully, but most fortunes in this country thinking themselves not liable to the tax were many years and did not pay it, until last year our honest justices for the hundred of Lonsdale found out that every farmer who farmed £70 per year and every man that had an estate worth £35 per annum was liable also and at this time the tax was raised to 21/- per year. Several people appealed against this tax but very few got off. The tax on farmers work horses went down without an if, all under 13 hands being exempted. The tax on dogs was swallowed readily, all that paid no assessed taxes being exempted. The tax on clocks and watches almost totally evaded in this country. The triple assessed tax if it gets forward will not affect the people in Wyresdale much for most of them pay less than 20/- a year assessed taxes. It is now 5 years since the commencement of this war, begun with a view to conquer France and now carried on only to gain a good and honourable peace which yet cannot be done, neither side are sufficiently humbled nay indeed the French are much elated having forced every power at war with them either to make peace or have conquered their dominions and made new Republics round them. The people of Great Britain will have to pay in taxes and Parochial rates next year £34,000,000 which is said to be more than ever was paid before by £10,000,000. The Triple Assessed Tax is to be laid on for 2 years and a quarter to let our enemies see that our resources are not yet exhausted. The stamp duty is so high that there are not more than one fourth of the Almanacs published this year, they being 1/4 each.

On the 28th was buried at Wyresdale Chapel James Bibby of Marshaw aged about 74 years. For many years he had been afflicted with the scurvy which at last brought him to the grave. His mouth and throat were so much afflicted that he could not eat, but lived on fluids alone and at last he could not take that and it is probable he died of want being able to take nothing.

1798

January. On the 23rd of this month was buried at Wyresdale Chapel, William Stone of the Abystead, Gamekeeper under J. F. Cawthorne for a great number of years. A savage, tyrannic, overbearing man. Illnatured, curst and wicked. Beloved nor respected by no man, but all I believe was glad when he was called from his works to receive his reward. He sorely repented of his ill spent life a little before he died, and confessed he had been guilty of every kind of sin whatever but murder and told what a good life he would lead if he recovered again, far different from what he had before done, but it is to be feared that had he been restored again to health he would have been the old man again. He died of consumption and had been visibly going for some years, yet he was as rough and turbulent and as wicked as ever, even till he could be so no longer. It is said that he sharply reproved John Drinkall for swearing a few weeks before he died. So he is gone to his reward. May his worthy master soon follow, for he has done enough.

All trade is exceedingly bad and worse and worse occasioned by the war and now more particularly by the French prohibiting the import of any English goods into France by any means which is a terrible blow to the English manufacturers of all denominations. The cotton trade is sunk to the lowest ebb. The Halting trade exceedingly bad. The triple assessed Tax Bill passed. Farmers horses now 18/- if he farms £70 per year or upwards. The supplementary militia to be embodied very soon & also the Cavalry men. The French threaten to invade this Land. Our governors pretend to be alarmed and do actually invade our pockets and purses. What else will the French have need of but all that we have.

On the 20th of January, Isaac Dobson son of Joseph Dobson of Quernmore was at Lancaster and he tarried late at night and got beeryfied as is often the case with him though not 20 years of age. He was drinking at the Boar's Head, Thomas Edmondsons, till about 11 o'clock at night and then set off towards home and was taken up the Moor Lane and over the Canal Bridge by some acquaintance and so came forward and as he came down Conder Brow a man on horseback met with him and dismounted his horse and knocked Isaac Dobson down with an Iron Bar and then robbed him of his money viz five shillings and left him sprawling on the road. Isaacs face was much bruised and his tongue split and his throat hurt so that when he got home he could not talk and a doctor was sent for immediately. This is the fair side of the story; now for the black side. A man who lives at the well house being in bed waked sometime of the night and heard his horse go out of the stable but did not get up just then, but towards morning he could not be easy and got up and his horse was come again but was lamed so that he was forced to take it to the Farrier and as his horse and Isaac Dobson both had need of a surgeon most folk thought that they had both been hurt together. That Isaac had taken the horse out of the stable and ridden it towards home as hard as he could and that it had fallen and so hurt both itself and Isaac and that is the general opinion at this time. The horse had a cloth on it and a sursingle about it and the cloth was found in Conder Brow and the sursingle was found at this side of the new mill off the road at a place where they pass over a slack or gutter, and it is a very rough stony place and there the sursingle was found and also hair on the stones that had come off the horse and some drops of blood thereabouts a proof good enough that the accident had happened there. But Dobson's folk set forth a dreadful story of Isaac's being robbed and that it was an Irishman that robbed him who works about Lancaster and Isaac says he had a good deal of money and was afraid of being robbed and so left it at Lancaster and that was the reason he had such a small sum about him. Now Joseph Dobson his father being at Lancaster sometime after the robbery took place was in a public company and the Irishman, the reputed theif, was in the same room also and Joseph Dobson spoke up and said "that is the man that robbed my son;" the man denied the fact and could prove himself in another place if necessary, but the Irishman went to an attorney and set him to work immediately for scandalising him and in a little time it would have been run up to a great sum for costs, but the Irishman stopped the attorney a piece to see if Joseph Dobson would make it up but Joseph was too stupid for that, but his wife went and made up the affair with the attorney and paid £5 for damages and the cost of the suit about £2. The Irishman and 2 or 3 of his companions went to the Public House with the £5 and never left it till the whole was spent. Joseph Dobson rubs his arm and says when they have got it it is nought. The wounds that Isaac received required the attendance of a surgeon several times and it is said cost £3 so the whole affair is said to have cost Joseph Dobson the sum of £10.

February. J. F. Cawthorne the petty tyrant of this Country has advertised a quantity of wood to be sold on the 14th of this month and he has marked some of his along his own fence which divides his land from Lord Archibalds and some he marked that grew from 3 to 6 feet from his fence in Lord Archibald's field because he thought he had a right to make a back dyke & so the trees would some be in the Dyke bottom and some in the Dyke breast but Mitchison getting to know he and Joseph Jackson and Richard Robinson came to view the trees in question and some the steward marked over again as belonging to Lord Archibald and others he set down doubtful and Cawthorne came to them and wanted them to mark some that were in the fence but there they would not meddle.

The Militia which was balloted 5 years ago their time being up this winter and so they ought to be discharged but it is said that those who were hired as substitutes at that time must not be discharged but must serve during the war, those who were balloted and served for themselves have been discharged and others balloted in their place. Now in Wyresdale 2 men were polled and both hired substitutes and both substitutes are continued on and so Wyresdale is not called upon for any more men on that account. Ellel is the same. It seems hard that these men should serve perhaps twice as long as they thought of, at the same time it seems an easement to the townships who hired substitutes but in reality it is not much advantage to Wyresdale for they hired a man with a family and have 3/- per week to pay for maintenance these 5 years.

Feb 26th. Something more than a week ago some men were drinking in a Public House in Preston and they differed about drink healths to the King, Queen and John Horrocks. They talked to such a degree that one man, a bookbinder was so provoked and mad that he declared he would be revenged of some of them. From the Public House they went into the street and there a desperate battle begun. The bookbinder pulled out a two edged knife and stabbed one man into the belly so that his entrails came out and he died in about 2 hours, another man he stabbed and he died immediately, and a third was wounded in the arm, it is said in disarming the barbarian. The man that begun the quarrel ran away unhurt. The bookbinder was secured and is brought to Lancaster Castle to take his trial at the next assizes.

About the beginning of this month Peter Tomlinson went again to Robert Mitchison and talked about his affair with Cawthorne and a few days after Cawthorne sent Joseph Whiteside his gun back again John Jackson of Greenbank took it and went to Joseph Whiteside who was thrashing in the barn. John told him that Mr Cawthorne had sent him his gun again and gave him leave to shoot crows or anything else, but Joseph refused to take the gun, for he was instructed so to do by the Justice Clayton so John Jackson received the gun up to the barn side and left it and there it is yet. A few days after that Peter was summoned by R. Mitchison to attend on him again and after some conversation he sent Peter to justice Clayton, Blackburn, whither Peter went & was almost a week away and came back about the 20th of this month.

Cawthorne writ a letter to Fanshaw, Lord of Hashaw, a long account of his stewards conduct, what a sad fellow he was and wished him to be turned out of his place, but it appears that Fanshaw did not give credit to Cawthornes complaint for he sent the letter to Tomlinson his steward, at Garstang.

In the first week of March Lord Archibald sent for Peter Tomlinson to come to Ashton Hall which he did and was charged whatever he did not to make the affair up with Cawthorne, but if Cawthorne came to him for that purpose he must tell him to go to Justice Clayton. Joseph Whiteside told my father as a great secret that they were proceeding against Cawthorne and have retained a councillor at London to come to Lancaster and it is to be tried this assizes which begin on the 24th of this month and it is thought Cawthorne will be tried for robbery. It was said that there was £50 expenses already on the plaintiffs side- that is Peter Tomlinson's but it may be observed that Peter is a very poor man a day labourer with a large family so so will be as able to pay £1000 as £10. His backers must stand the rubber.

At the Lancaster Assizes holden about the latter end of March a bill of Indictment was found against Cawthorne and Thomas Stone for assaulting Peter Tomlinson and Cawthorne and Thos Stone was bound in 2 sureties each to appear at the next assizes at Lancaster when they are to take their trial. John Jackson, Cawthorne's steward and Robert Banton of Wyresdale were bound with Thos Stone in £20 each and R Jonson, newsheet and Lawyer Baldwin were bound with Cawthorne. Cawthorne and Stone were extremely frightened and kept locked up for some days before the indictment came out and Cawthorne was stark mad besides and ill in bed and the justice Bradshaw came to Wyresdale, instead of the offenders being taken before the justices, the justices of the Peace came to the offenders to take their bail.

A Scandalous affair:-

Richard Townley of Ortner, son of Thos & Elizabeth Townley, fiddler and informer etc. It was by and through him that Cawthorne had such a scolding bout with my father about my father chimeing in with folks at Ortner Smithy when they discovered of Cawthornes brave actions; and when Cawthorne had a great brustle at Catshaw with Wm Brown and some others Richard Townley came down the fields with Ted Aldstone and Townley said he did not like such brustles and rough work and Edmund said "No, they was very silly for doing so" "if he was a gentleman he would get Samples to catch two or three hares privately and let nobody know, for Jon Samples was a very good hand and was here only a few days since catching two or three" (all this he said in a joke) but Richard Townley went straight and told Cawthorne what Edmund has said and Cawthorne attacked Samples that very day and charged him with snaring and such like. So this was Richard Townley's way of hateing such brustles and falling out. He being one of Cawthorne's spies, attends Ortner smithy very well to hear what people may say there, as well as in other places. He was talking with his best friend the Parson James Bleasdale, Curate at Wyresdale Chapel and Schoolmaster at the Abbeystead and so James had expressed himself rather freely on some of Cawthorne's brave actions, such as Peter Tomlinson's & Thos Bradley's and Richard went and told Cawthorne what the Parson has said. Cawthorne comes up in a day or two and gives James Bleasdale a good lecture and threatened to turn him out of the school. After that is a few days Cawthorne went up again to the Abbeystead and catched James Bleasdale drunk at Henry Mason's where he had been al night. So then Cawthorne called on the other Trustees and appointed a day to meet at the School to turn James Bleasdale the Parson out of the school and they met accordingly. Thomas Townley being one he told Thomas Winder that he had scolded his son Richard for telling Cawthorne such stories, and so he went to the school with Cawthorne and they unanimously voted James out. Thos Townley never standing up to screen the injured Parson who was from his son Richard thus injured. I believe Richard has done more mischief and injured James Bleasdale more than he will ever do good in his lifetime. He never will do a good deed equal to counterprise this ill deed. But he is sprung of a bad stock and many of his relations have done things worse than what many men have been hanged for (straw, salt, malt, wood, sucks, glaves & harrowteeth). Cawthorne is also using all his endeavours to have the Parson turned out of the Chapel but as yet he is unsuccessful.

On the 8th of March the Trustees to Cawthorne's will met at Lancaster to appoint a new schoolmaster in the room of James Bleasdale and there was only Rd Hathornthwaite, Thos Thompson and Anthony Blezard the schoolmaster having been sent for by Lord Archibald to come to Ashton Hall and he accordingly went thither and related his case to Archibald Hamilton and Major Clayton and they advised him to open the school again and begin to teach as usual and he should not be turned out, and told him not to be afraid for they would back him whatever it cost. They advised James Bleasdale to go to the other Trustees who did not sign his dismissal nor were acquainted with it and Major Clayton took James Bleasdale in his coach from Ashton Hall to Justice Butlers at Kirtland below Garstang, one of the Trustees, who gave James good encouragement. The day after James went to Squire Wiglesworth another Trustee, and was well received. On the 7th being the day after he went to Burton in Kendal to Squire France and was well received. The Trustees, 8 in number, are Justice Butler, France, Wiglesworth, Col Cawthorne, Rd Hathornthwaite, Thos Thompson, Anthony Blezard and Thos Townley.

The number of Trustees first was 14 and when 7 of these are dead the seven alive are to choose other 7 which has been done, and now it approaches the time again as some of these are but feeble men.

As was before said the Trustees met and James Bleasdale also and he told them he would not be turned out nor they could not turn him out and that he would begin to teach again the 12th of the month.

James Bleasdale accordingly as he had said opened the School on the 12th of March and begun to teach again. Cawthorne went sometime of the day and stormed at him but James said he would not be turned out, but the Trustees are to have a meeting at the School the 2nd day next week to appoint a new master. In the meantime disputes run high some being for James Bleasdale and some against him.

The Trustees met according to their proposal at the School on the 19th of March and James Bleasdale was teaching there and had got a Lawyer from Lancaster to come and assist and he came and met the Trustees and they went to Hannah Drinkalls and consulted there James Bleasdale not budging from his place. The Trustees made nothing out but ordered James out of the school and he would not go. Then they went and ordered Henry Watson off his farm, and then the Lawyer Parkinson went to the school and all the neighbours being present by desire of James Bleasdale the Lawyer examined them respecting how their children had learned and he took down in writing what they said, 6 or 7 of them, and then as many more as agreed in the same story that their children had learned as well as they could expect and had liked the master well. And some of the neighbours testified that James had attended the School very well. The Trustees are to have another meeting on the 30th inst. Anthony Blezard was not at this meeting. Thos Townley signed a paper which James Bleasdale had testifying that his daughter had learned well and was well used. The next morning he went betimes to get his name scratched out but James Bleasdale would not. He would consider of it a piece.

On the 23rd the Trustees met at the Abbeystead and appointed a new Schoolmaster. He is called Hartley and comes out of Boland. The Trustees again ordered James Bleasdale out of the School but he said he had possession and would consider of it a week or a fortnight. They then went and gave Henry Watson notice to prepare to quit his farm and when they had done Henry Watson's wife asked them if they had done but received no answer. She then said that they would not offer to quit until they had received notice 6 months before Candlemass. Thos Townley signed for the new Schoolmaster. This is his third vote. Some people call him signall, other say he has given a split vote.

Feb 28th. All trade continues extremely bad and no employment for poor people. Silk and worsted spinning none is to be had unless the spinner be a very good one and those are paid at reduced prices.

At the beginning of February was married at Lancaster _____ Hathorntwaite from Boland to Dority Winder of Wyresdale. Hathornthwaite aged 81 years and Dority aged 80 years.

March. John Pearcey, schoolmaster, teaches in his house at Cleveley. An old house on the left hand side of the road going to the Houllings standing two or three yards higher than the road. This man has an Ark which was infected with mites, so to get clear of them he got a quantity of dry brackens and put them into the Ark and set them on fire and they blazed up to the top of the house and set the thatch and timber on fire. The man was so terrified that he had not the presence of mind to shut the lid of the Ark. The neighbourhood was soon alarmed and all came, but too late, for the house was burned to the ground, but a good deal of Furniture was got out. The Ark however was cleared of the mites fir it was entirely consumed. The house belonged to Lord Archibald Hamilton.

The Supplementary Militia are to meet at Lancaster on the 8th of this month and a part of them to be embodied. The Cavalry men are to be had up sometime soon.

On the 2nd of this month Josha Bibby, assessor for Wyresdale brought about and delivered to al the Farmers and others in Wyresdale a paper to each of them on which their assessed taxes were set down which was, a pleasure horse £3-12s additional, the old duty of 24/- being tripled and that added to the other makes the riding horse £4-16s a year. The workhorses are charged 12/- additional making on the whole 18/- per work horse. The appeal day is the 15th of this month at the Grapes Inn in Lancaster and I suppose a great number will appeal for they are charged far more than triple assessed Tax Bill requires. For by the Act a man who pays between 20/- and 40/- assessed taxes was to be raised only one fourth of what he paid. The work horses not to be recorded in the Assessed Taxes and most in Wyresdale are in this class. How they came to make the pleasure horse as it is called pay the Triple Assessment additional I cannot imagine. They might as well have charged it quadruple or quintuple as Triple, but the Justices, the Commissioners and the Clerks are a set of overbearing tyrannic scoundrels and a curse in the country they live in. If the fools of Commissioner go according to the Act the people will not have much to pay for there is a clause in the Act that if a man can prove that he is not worth £60 per year of a clear income he is to be exempt altogether except for work horses which are to be 18/- per year.

On the 8th March the supplementary militia met at Lancaster and a number was lotted to be embodied forthwith. One half I believe was to be raised but some say 6 out of 10 are lotted to serve. For Wyresdale James Birkett was lotted for one, who serves for his father Rd Birkett. On the 10th of this month hundreds & thousands of the supplementary and others were at Lancaster. The supplementary are to learn their exercise at Lancaster. All accounts say the town is top full of soldiers & red coats and some say that there is 4000 soldiers or of that profession in Lancaster and it as this time wears a very warlike appearance. The Lancashire Old Militia lying in Cornwall some of them are sent to drill these supplementary men at Lancaster. Some come from Bodmin to Lancaster in 5 days, a distance of 400 miles. One of these men told my father that he was at Bodmin and at the last first day at night new nothing of coming here, set off the 2nd day morning and arrived at Lancaster the 6th day at night.

The wheaten penny loaf was on the 5th of this month 7ox 5 dr and had been so since the 13th of January.

On the 5th of March was married Wm Procter son of Thomas Procter of the Higher Morehead, halter to Sarah Birkett, daughter of Wm Birkett of the Lower Morehead.

Some weeks since was married Richard Bibby son of James Bibby of Tarnbrook to _________ servant at Thos Bradley's. She has had a bastard child by William Willcock of the Lee.

Died the last week at Hathornthwaite a woman called Townley daughter of Thos Townley the night cap weaver.

The 15th of March was the appeal day at Lancaster about the Tripple Assessed Taxes and many out of Wyresdale appealed. Wm Hotkinson of Catshaw was charged about £7 additional and got about half of it taken off. Thos Bamber could get nothing taken off, he farming £150 per year. Joseph Whiteside got the additional duty taken off the Riding horse £3-12s. Thos Procter could get nothing off, he being a farmer and master halter employing 7 or 8 men constantly. All the lesser farmers got off who were charged with an additional 12/- per work horse. Elizabeth Drinkall of Ortner appealed for the workhorses she farming £63 a year but she having some interest of money coming in she was obliged to pay 18/- per work horse.

The 16th of March was the appeal day at Preston for the Amounderness Hundred and John Robinson of Dolphinholme was charged for 4 mare horses and farms £150 a year and he thought himself aggrieved though he had 5 horses of all and had not entered one a riding horse. In the whole he was charged 48/- additional so he went to Preston to appeal and the Commissioners found out that he was liable to pay for a saddle horse and charged him with one and surcharged him. The saddle horse is now £4-16s and the surcharge as much as so instead of getting anything off he will have £9-12s more to pay. He is in a great rage and is for doing his neighbours kindness and force them all to pay if he can.

On the 17th of March was buried at Wyresdale Chapel William Pye aged 72 years.

There is about 800 militia at Lancaster and some soldiers besides. All the town full of them. At the Kings Arms 60 are billeted, at the New Inn 45, Bear & Staff 35, Boars Head 20, White Cross Tollbars 16 etc. It is supposed they will be marched from Lancaster in the course of the next week before the Assizes begin.

On the 24th of March the penny wheaten loaf at Lancaster weighed 6 oz 13 dms.

During March there were very great disturbances in Ireland. That oppressed country appears to be on the eve of a terrible explosion. The consequence will be an emancipation from tyranny and oppression.

The French invasion much talked of and much feared by our Governors. If they do come they will probably swipe off our drones.

April. On the 10th was buried at Wyresdale Chapel Lawrence Pye of the Emmets in Wyresdale aged about 70 years.

Died a few days ago Parson Braithwaite of Ellel Chapel aged 80 years.

Died on the morning of the 10th at his house at Catshaw in Wyresdale, of the Gravel, Thomas Bambers, farmer, aged 70 years or upwards.

The worthy Trustees of the Abbeystead School met on the 21st of April at the Abbeystead for the purpose of turning the master out and six of the Trustees appeared viz. John F. Cawthorne, Thos Thompson, Rd Hathorntwaite, Anthony Blezard, Justice Butler and Justice France. Three were for turning him out and the latter three for keeping him in so nothing was done but another meeting was appointed for the next 5th day at the New Hollings. There was tow Lawyers attended, one on each side. It is said they mean to lay a new Indictment against the Schoolmaster for neglecting the School about a year since when there was a bit of a brustle with him but he promising to be more diligent he was continued on, but now they mean to try that point over again. Three of the Trustees have set their hands to a paper agreeing to try this affair in the court of Equity. They are Cawthorne, Thompson & Hathornthwaite.

On the 26th the Trustees met at the Hollings according to agreement attended by a Lawyer and a considerable number of evidence against J. Bleasdale. J. Bleasdale also met them with a Lawyer and a great number of evidence that he has done well. All the evidence on Cawthorne's side against the Parson was set aside as swayed & biased all of them being benefited by the Charity money except William Cragg, who was all that was examined on that side against the Parson. For the Parson a great number was examined all agreeing that he was a good schoolmaster and a good man. Thos. Thompson one of the Trustees charged the Parson with lying and swearing and other crimes but several who are well acquainted with him never heard him swear in their lives. This is a false charge. Six of the Trustees only appeared and 3 were on one side and 3 on the other as before the affair consequently is over in favour of the Parson and the Trustees cannot go to Law for there is not a majority against him. There voted against James Bleasdale, Cawthorne, Thompson, Hathornthwaite, for him Justices Butler & France and Anthony Blezard, neutral Wigglesworth & Townley.

At one of the meetings James Bleasdale desired Thos Thompson to take a book and hear one of the scholars read a lesson - Answer "Our folk kept em to work, they did not send me to the school." A plain proof he could not read. Thos Townley has been of all sides, at the two or three last meetings he has refused to act any way.

On the 30th Cawthorne gave Thomas & John Townley a good calling for their double dealing. He told Thomas he would have him get a Pook? and pull it over his head and face and never shew his face again among men, he had forsworn his own hand writing, he was not a man of his word, his neighbours had a very mean opinion of him; and with John he was worse and blew the foundation of all this disturbance up. "Did not you, John, come down and Dick with you and wish me to get the Parson turned out of the school and Chapel and told me he was an idle fellow and minded nothing but drinking & carding etc and that he never paid his board wages." John said nothing Cawthorne swear again "Did not you, come" John said "Aye". Then Cawthorne called him properly. To Thos Townley he said "I suppose the Parson does something at your wife."

It would almost keep a man doing to write down all Cawthorne's ill deeds, many times I resolve to write no more but as he is an extraordinary man I still follow him with my pen, but I sincerely hope the world will never be plagued with such another man, and very much are they to be pitied who live under the paw of this tyrant. Because many of the inhabitants of the lower end of Wyresdale have spoken well of James Bleasdale and given evidence for him, Cawthorne to be revenged has decreed that the Turf got on the Abbeystead Fell shall be 5/- per fall, a very unreasonable price. For some years past it has been 2/- and before that for almost 100 years it was 1/6 per fall. Very few turf at this price will be got. The inhabitants may leave this place and flee from the tyrant of this land.

May 10th. Today Thomas Goss an eminent Land Surveyor was buried at Wyresdale Chapel. A great number of persons attended. The corpse was brought to the Chapel in a cart. He was the heaviest man I ever saw.

June 23rd. At this time the Lancaster Canal is so low of water as to be impassable for laden vessels.

In the beginning of June, Cawthorne begun to sink for a coal pit at Marshaw and was in great hopes, but at the month end, being got 11 or 12 yards deep the water comes in fast into the pit that in a morning the pit is 8 or 9 yards deep of water which takes most part of the day to bail it out.

July. On the 10th was buried at Wyresdale Chapel, Richard Kitchin aged 77 1/2 years. He had been ill 7 or 8 weeks and was waked with 5 weeks.

August. On the 18th the Judges came into Lancaster. There is about 26 Crown Prisoners to take their trial besides many causes.

At Cawthorne's Coal Pit the Colliers have begun to bore & have got about 30 feet deep at this time.

Cawthorne is resolved to take in 200 acres on Marshaw Fell and has now one Thos. Buttle surveying and planning it out.

Most of the farmers at Marshaw have life leases of their farms and all together have a right to all the Fell, but gentle Cawthorne is resolved to take a great part of the best of the Fell from them without allowing them any recompense except cursing and scolding and so much of the fell being enclosed for his own use will be a very great detriment to the farmers.

The Canal Packet boat began to move on the 6th of this month. It is off from Lancaster at 7 o'clock on the 2nd, 4th and 6th days in the morning and reaches Preston at2 o'clock in the afternoon the same day, and it comes back on the 3rd, 5th and 7th days. Sets off from Preston at 7 o'clock in the morning and reaches Lancaster at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. Fares. Fore cabin passengers 2/6 or 1d per mile. Steerage 1/6 or 1/2 per mile and for a short length 2d. Steerage 1/3 from Galgate to Preston. They have 4 changes of horses to convey the boat. The first stage from Lancaster for a man, a boy, & 2 horses each in wages 10/- for 4 hours work. The second stage, same strength 9/-. Third stage 8/6 & fourth stage 10/-.

There is a fence between Cawthorne's Wyresdale estate and Archibald Hamilton's Land at Scott Farm. The fence is made by Cawthorne, and some 3 to 5 feet in Archibald's Land there was a row of trees which Cawthorne claimed and marked and would have sold them. Archibald also claimed them and felled them and lead them away. The question is as to whose trees they are. A special jury came on the 21st to view the fence and the trees in dispute.

The trial came on the 23rd at 9 o'clock and was decided at 2 o'clock in favour of Hamilton. There was a great number of evidences examined and some of those for Cawthorne swore bravely. Ingleby, and eminent Land Surveyor had viewed and planned the place for Cawthorne and was asked by the judge if he had been sent to view the place without knowing anything of the dispute who he thought the trees would have belonged to, those who made the dike, or to the field behind the dike. He answered the field behind the dike, that is Hamilton. Counsel for the plaintiff Cawthorne was Cockel or Cockin. This lawsuiut, it is said by Robt Mitchinson, Hamilton's steward, will cost Cawthorne £250. Hamilton paid his swearers 5/- per day & found them plenty of meat & drink.

Cawthorne's Coal-pit. Some men are boring & have got 30 yards deep but have found no coal as yet.

Cawthorne was not tried at this Assizes for assaulting Peter Tomlinson, but he traversed, and so it is put off till the next assizes.

On the 12th of August at 6 o'clock at night Richard Townley of Ortner came to our house and told us that on the 11th as he and his uncle were passing by Galgate they were called to by Hannah Sanders, the landlady who told them that a gentleman in the house desired to speak with them, so they went into the house and the man told them that he had come down from London and was going to Wyresdale for there was a Prebendary of Chichester dead about two years ago whose name was John Heaps and that he was bred and brought up in Wyresdale until he was 9 years of age at which time he ran away and became a great scholar and Prebend of Chichester and that he died in the year 1796 aged 86 years and in his will he left £500 to purchase land and build a school and a house for the schoolmaster to live in and £50 per annum salary. On the 13th by 9 o'clock in the morning Betty Parkinson had found out that there was a woman in Wyresdale called Heaps about the time that this man was born, about 1710, and that this woman was housekeeper to one Master Bond of Durnshaw, schoolmaster, at the Abbeystead and that this woman had a child by Master Bond and that this child was the said John Heaps very probably, and furthermore Betty Parkinson said that this housekeeper was her grandmother consequently John Smith is brother to this John Heaps though it looks odd that a woman should call two of her sons John. Thos. Winder was certain that he had heard tell of such a name in Wyresdale and he thought he was a halter. My father was certain there was never a halter of that name in Wyresdale. John Bateson aged 87 years and an inhabitant of Wyresdale most part of his time cannot remember any such name in Wyresdale in his time nor had as he knew heard tell of such a name.

The gentleman yesterday sent for James Bleasdale parson at Wyresdale and told him the story and the Parson believed it to be true. 2 o’clock. We have heard that the gentleman at Galgate has today sent for Parson Stuart of the Admark and he went & called at Cawthorne’s as he was going. Cawthorne said that the man at Galgate was an imposture and would have him turn back, but he would not. Stuart went to Galgate and the man told him the same story and that there was to be 4 trustees appointed, one of whom was to be the Parson of the place or of the Parish adjoining, and therefore he appointed Cawthorne, James Bleasdale, John Townley and Thomas Bateson, trustees. The master was to educate 20 tradesmens children. Today also this gentleman came to Wyreside to talk with Cawthorne about this Heaps School but Cawthorne would not be seen of him. It is said that this man came in the packet boat to Galgate on the 11th of this month and that night he walked about to look at the country & went by Cawthorne’s and to Galgate. Another time he had been at Wm Caton’s shop and turned back the road was so rough he pretended that he could not get forward to Wyresdale.

23rd. The man at Galgate that came about building Heap’s School proved to be a Bailiff, one of John Fielding’s men from London. He was several times about Wyreside but has not had the pleasure of seeing Cawthorne in any of his journeys. Cawthorne is now forces to keep close quarters in his own house. It is said that there are ever so many Bailiffs about daily who wish to be doing with him. It has been all the talk today and a very pleasant story it was: it is the queerest that Betty Parkinson should so scandalize her grandmother & Master Bond and let all the world know that her grandmother was a whore.

September 5th. About a fortnight since was married James Winder son of John Winder, blacksmith, to Mary Pye daughter of John Pye. There was about 20 persons at the wedding.

Last week we received intelligence that 700 French were landed in Ireland and had taken the town of Killala & made some prisoners. Some reports made the French 1800. The official account says 700 and they were brought by 3 Frigates, another account says 4 Frigates. They brought a great number of arms and the country people were joining them. This week we have had an account that there had been a battle between the invaders and General Lake, and the French beat their opponents & took 6 pieces of cannon. This battle was fought at Castlebar, 25 miles from Killala. General Lake retreated 23 miles after the battle. His loss is stated to be very considerable. Some accounts make the invaders to be 300 or 4000 men, mostly cavalry. The Bishop of Killala is taken prisoner.

There was a Town’s meeting held at Marshaw on the 10th for the purpose of taking into consideration the propriety of making the Poor Rate more equal than at present and it was agreed that the rate or sessment should be laid on more equal and three men were appointed to make a valuation of the whole township and sess every one according to his landed property. The men appointed to this important business were Thos Thompson of Lentworth, John Jackson of Greenbank and Joshua Bibby of Marshaw. Note: John Jackson & Joshua Bibby are Cawthorne’s tenants so Cawthorne’s land we may suppose will come off very lightly.

Died on the morning of the 1st, James Shaw of Marshaw, farmer. He has left a wife & small children. He died of a surfeit from much work & made his will only the night before he died.

22nd. The French that invaded Ireland are taken prisoners, of all 842 men, by an army of 22,000 men who behaved with the greatest bravery, they being only 26 men to 1 man.

In this month there was a Supplementary Militia man lotted for Wyresdale in room of one run away and Robert Yates was lotted. He being in no club has got leave till this month end to find a man to serve for him and he got one which they refused, but gave him another week to find another.

October. On the 5th Robt Gardner, son of James Gardner of Hearsomsike was leading turf of Hellfoot moss to the Crag & as he was going along the road he met a lad with a wheelbarrow which frightened his horse so that it set off very fast & he ran & got hold of the Coker reins, the bits not being in the horse’s mouth. The horse rushed forward & the cart run over Robert and broke his leg & made a large cut in the side of his leg. The horse ran forward for more than half a mile. Robert Mason saw the accident and went and carried Robert Gardner home upon his back.

24th. Coalthorne’s Eval. Pit. They have got through rock and into a softer sort of shilla and are now about 80 yards deep. They propose to go 100 yards deep.

The cotton and woolen trades are said to be much better this month that for some time by-past.

Cawthorne is for having 300 statute acres enclosed on Marshaw Fell and has let part of the wall building from the present Copy nook to the Trough foot to John Gornal Limeburner at the Sikes who is to get the stones, lead them, & make the wall for 8/- per perch of 7 yards.

An Estate beside Scotforth Moor belonging to Rawlinson sold this month for £2855 to Hume. The place is called Bigforth and is 58 acres of land statute measure and is now in the possession of John Spanton? as tenant thereof.

November 5th. A ship that sailed from Lancaster last week met with a storm on the coast of Ireland & it thundered and lightened. A flash of fire struck many of the sailors blind for a considerable time but they recovered again. The foremast and bowsprit were broken down and fell overboard yet all the men escaped unhurt.

Lancaster Castle which has cost £20,000 repairing and beautifying in now reckoned to be the completest and finest piece of Architecture in Europe. So said a gentleman who has made the grand tour of Europe twice over.

The persons appointed to make a new valuation of Wyresdale & make a ssessment more equal than the present one is have performed their job and great alteration is made in the sessment. All the farms at the lower end of Wyresdale have less to pay in the new sessments than in the old one. The new sessment is £36 which is 2 ½ d in the £ on the value put on the rent of the land by these men. At Catshaw their sessment is nearly double. At the Abbeystead nearly the same as before.

At Cawthorne’s Coal pit they have got into another solid rock, by boring, at the depth of about 67 or 68 yards and pretend to be in great expectation of a good bed of coals.

Sometime last week a bailiff from Preston came to Wyresdale and wanted to see Cawthorne for a certain gentleman at Preston well acquainted with Cawthorne he pretended wanted a gamekeeper and with this pretence he came to Wyreside with tow dogs and told his errand & was immediately let into the Hall to Cawthorne & there he told Cawthorne a fine story about wanting a gamekeeper but Cawthorne begun to suspect something & begun to be very stormy & made towards the room door, but the bailiff got up & set his back to the door, pulled out a pistol and swear he would shoot.

November. The cotton & worsted trades are said to be better this month. Worsted spinning is 11d per lb for 24 hanks & 12d for 26 hanks. At Dolphinholme factory the latter end of this month they begin to spin day & night.

It is said that a bed of coals a yard thick has been found in Bowland near Newton at Lamhill? Cawthorne’s borers are in a solid rock.

Cawthorne’s enclosure on Marshaw lot proceeds. All the wall is let to 3 persons to build at 7/6, 8/- & 9/- per rood the wall to be a yard thick in the bottom and 7 ft high.

December. The week ending the 15th was a most stormy week. A very violent East wind blew for 6 days and did an amount of damage chiefly in thatch and it is the whole subject of conversation at this time.

On the 28th Banjamin Clough a servant at Cawthornes, old and inform went with a cart to the Emmets for a beast that had died & as he came back up the brow below the smithy at Ortner he was riding on the cart head & not taking proper care he let the horse come too near the brow side & the cart threw over and he flew down the scar and was found motionless lying in the bottom and was carried to Robert Clarkson's with very little signs of life but in a[n] hour he came to himself and was no great deal worse for his fall having no bones broken nor much bruised. The horse & cart were found part of the way down the Scar held there by an Oak of 10 or 12 years growth, and could by no means be parted in that situation for no one durst venture near except on the upper side. The horse's legs were lapped fast in the backband & could not be loosed. So having fixed divers ropes to the cart wheels & horse they were all let down the scar together but for all the ropes they went with a terrible rush & the cart was broken to bits. The horse received no harm. But for the little oak which providentially stopped the cart & horse old Ben had been killed on the spot. The place where he went down is almost perpendicular & 8 or 9 yds down.

1799

January. On the 14th was married at Lancaster Church, James Bleasdale, officiating minister at Wyresdale Chapel & schoolmaster at the Abbystead school in Wyresdale to Betty Tomlinson of Lentworth, the daughter of John Tomlinson, farmer, late of Pilling. Jas. Bleasdale aged 38, Betty Tomlinson aged 20.

On the 16th died George Ward, butcher at the Abbeystead after an illness of about 8 days, aged about 67 years. His arm swelled amazingly and looked like as if it had been boiled for many hours & it was the cause of his death. He was very little respected or beloved. By his death Cawthorne comes in possession of a little farm which George held in life lease at Marshaw.

Early in the morning of the 19th the barn of John Bibby, weaver, of Borwicks in Wyresdale was burned down together with 4 spring calving cows, a large quantity of hay, 2 carts, the turf house and all the turf. By what means it caught fire is not known, the servant maid being the first alarmed by hearing a great crack like the breaking of a beam whereupon she got up and alarmed the family & John Bibby, his wife and herself all ran out naked & found the barn on fire & all the slate dropped in. John then ran over to Thomas Kitchen's for help (still naked in his shirt) and they saved the house by pulling off some of the thatch next the turf house. The turf house, house, & barn all joined together and although plenty of people were there it was with the greatest difficulty that the house was preserved as for several hours it was sometimes covered with sparks and fire from the great quantity of turf stored in the turf house and which burnt furiously. The loss to John Bibby is estimated at £50 or upwards and will reduce him to beggary. The loss to the landlord Thomas Townley is estimated at £50 or £60. The rent of the farm is only £22 a year.

On the 27th was buried at Wyresdale Chapel, Ellen Yates of Scorton in Lower Wyresdale, a relation of Townley's of Ortner and maintained by the town of Plumpton, aged about 70 years. A good natured woman and a notable talker to herself.

Some time ago, since the great wind the 16th of last December, the landlord of the public house at the Oakenclough, called Wearing, was thatching, and he shifting the ladder for a new gang & it holding at something he gave a stronger lift & the ladder broke and he fell backwards and fractured his skull. He died in about 4 days after and only fell about 5 or 6 feet. He had been landlord only a part of a year.

On the 26th the Assizes begun at Lancaster. There was 26 crown prisoners in the list to take their trials. They were all tried before the 30th. 4 were condemned to be hanged, 1 remanded, 1 fined 1/- and imprisoned for 14 days, 2 fined 1/- & imprisoned for a year, 1 imprisoned for 6 months, 1 imprisoned for 2 years. Admitted Kings evidence 1. No prosecution 2. No Bill 1. Transported for 14 years 1. Transported for 7 years 1. of all 26 prisoners, besides Cawthorne & Tom. Stone.

April 1st. J. F. Cawthorne and Tom Stone were tried today at Lancaster Assizes for assaulting Peter Tomlinson and taking a gun from him and found guilty were fined 6s. 8d.

The first week of April was very winterly. Frost, cold, & snow have seldom exceeded what has been this week & a driving snow so late in the spring can not be remembered.

Funeral. On the 5th an old woman at Hearsonsike called Sconce should have been buried but the weather proved so stormy that only 2 or 3 persons attended & so the funeral was postponed til the 6th, when it being market day at Lancaster & some who should have been at the funeral going to the market they bid others to the funeral. The roads were so blocked up with snow that a great strength was required and at 2 o’clock the funeral set off from Hearsonsike to Cockerham. There was about 30 men and 6 or 7 women present. We went over the fields over hedge and dyke to the 5 lane ends and the road from the Crag being so full of snow that we durst not venture on it, it being level with the fences all the way. From the 5 lane ends to the Bay Horse the lane was exceedingly drifted, in some places 4 or 5 feet high & some places bare so that it was exceedingly hard work carrying. It was found necessary to change carriers every 3 or 4 roods & for every carrier to have a man to walk by his side & take hold of his arm to support him for they sunk in the snow almost knee deep sometimes & by walking in this manner they never fell. In one place it was about 4 feet plum down to a drift edge. When we got to the Bay Horse every man sweat very much. From thence to Cockerham the road was very little obstructed by snow & we got well forward & we went in something less than 2 hours time. We got dinner at Cockerham and a few glasses of Ale and then came home. It would have been impossible for a man to carry a corpse so far the day before. The woman deceased was aged 78 years.

James Simpson of the Fell End in Lower Wyresdale should have been buried on the 6th at Sledburn but the road is so blocked up with snow that it was put off to the 7th.

In the trough of Bowland 30 men were employed in cutting a road through the snow on the 6th and on the 5th at night 40 men were employed in cutting a road from Galgate to Lancaster and they got it finished that night. This storm of snow has drifted an abundance of sheep and it being the time of lambing it has done badly as many Ewes have lambed under the drifts & some lambs have got out of the snow and their Dams have been found dead under the snow & many lambs lost.

On the 27th there was three men hanged at Lancaster.

At the end of the month the scarcity of Fodder continues increasing and is nearly all expended and grass there is none. The ground is as bare as possible and cattle are greatly famished. Hay is sold at 1/- per stone and very little can be got at that price. There is accounts that many cattle have been hungered to death. It is said that meal and wheat will be dear this summer, for the scarcity of fodder has caused the farmers to give their cattle corn in such quantities that it is reported that the cattle eat more than the people. Potatoes have advanced in price this month 2/- or 3/- per load, great quantities having been frosted and more given to the cattle. This scarcity of fodder extended all through May & had been very scarce from the beginning of the year. This is the most backward Spring ever remembered.

At the end of May the cotton trade was very brisk & several people were learning to weave at the street in Lower Wyresdale. Worsted spinning by the hand is very low, only 10 ½ per lb of 24 hanks.

June. On the 8th was buried at Wyresdale Chapel, Thos Bibby of Marshaw. On the 1st he was well and getting turf on the fell. By his death a farm at Marshaw goes out of lease in possession of Joshua Bibby. On the same day there died at the Bond yate Thomas Gornall.

On the 1st was buried at Wyresdale Chapel, old Mitchell of the Oakenclough aged 99 years, maintained some time by the Parish.

Last week was married at Lancaster Andrew Richmond (miller) aged 75 to Peggy Lawrence aged 35. Andrew died in October 1804.

In the beginning of June was buried at Wyresdale Chapel the wife of John Fanshaw of Ellel and when the corpse was brought to Ortner John Fanshaw said “Let us take her through the fold” & so they carried the corpse through John Townley’s fold by the house door. It being considerably further that way than on the road made folks wonder why the funeral went that way, & for what reason or purpose it was done is not yet resolved.

August. During the week ending the 7th was buried at Wyresdale Chapel, Jane Morley of Hathornthwaite. She died of a fever which prevails at this time.

During the week ending the 24th there died at Wyreside old Ben Clough for 24 years servant to J. F. Cawthorne.

On the 7th there was the greatest flood in the Ribble remembered for many years. It overflowed much land, laid corn flat & washed a deal of hay away.

In the week ending the 24th an estate in Ellel called the Lower Crag belonging to Cawthorne was sold to Ed. Rigby for £881. Let about £35 a year & the stone quarry made as much for some years.

September. In the first week an estate called Ward Field was sold to John Townley of Ortner with a house, barn & gardens, in all 17 acres of land for £1950.

An Estate situate at Bowraigh? Belonging to Thos Jepson sold to Hine for £1970. 22 acres of land, 2 houses & a barn.

October. The night of the 6th excessively heavy rain and a very great flood. In Wyre it was the greatest that has been for some time & much land was overflowed, potatoes spoiled, dykes & walls washed down. Caw Mill weir is almost totally washed away & it is said that it will cost £40 to repair it. Cleveley Mill wear was washed out and Cleveley Bridge washed down – a wood foot bridge – there has only been 3 greater floods in the Wyre in the last 12 years. Viz. 17th August 1787; the 28th of October 1787; & on the 22nd August 1793. In the Ribble it was an exceedingly great flood & vast quantities of corn swept away.

The cotton trade is rather lower this month. It has been very brisk all this summer & a deal of folk have learned to be muslin weavers in Lower Wyresdale, at the Street in particular and more are entering on this Winter. This trade had like to have overspread Wyresdale once before, first at the breaking out of the war. The merchant trade is very bad at this time, all the West India produce being fallen in price.

December. A Town’s meeting was held at Marshaw. All the pensioners wanting more salary and it was agreed to give them 4d per head weekly more than they had before considering the times are very hard and dear.

1800

January. On the 1st at night George Johnson of Lancaster, liquor merchant was travelling about Black Burton on horseback. The storm was very furious and the snow became very deep in some places so that he was forced to dismount and was something unwell and much benumbed with cold and he lost his horse and went on foot till he came to a farm house where he called them up & told them who he was and that he was almost starved to death so they let him into the house where he told them many particulars of his journey and being then very cold he desired they would give him a glass of Rum which they did. They then wished him to go to bed where one of them had just got out so he went and soon fell asleep and waked no more. He died.

On the 11th inst was buried at Wyresdale Chapel, Ellen Procter daughter of Thomas and Agnes Proctor of the More head in Wyresdale, aged 22 years. She died of a decline having been ill for a very long time.

On the 25th inst. There was a Riot at Lancaster as follows:- the price of meal was uncommonly high and considerably on the advance and when all was sold but a load or two that a man had he asked more for it than a market price which enraged the poussards (poor women of the town) so much that they said that he deserved to have it taken from him, and he gave them very saucy language and said that he hoped meal would be £5 per load in a very little time which made the women very angry and they seised his load of meal and threw it down & cot ot tore the sack and begun to divide or sell the meal, which I cannot say, some say they sold it at 6lbs for 1/-. A party of Dragoons was in the town and was immediately drawn up under arms and a party I suppose of Lancaster Volunteers entered the Town Hall with their bayonets fixed and drove all the women out of the Town Hall & as I understand before much of the meal was carried away. The Cavalry then paraded the sheets for some hours to keep peace and quietness among the women. Further particulars of the Riot:- It is said the man that was mobbed asked something more than a market price and the buyers bid considerably less and so he said he would not sell it but set it up for he should not wonder if it was £5 per load before the month end and the mob was so enraged that the man got away as fast as he could. In an hour or two it was thought provident to take the meal, 3 loads, from the Town Hall to the Bear & Staff in the Penny Street and so it was put in a cart and they got Ralph Parker to drive the cart and a party of soldiers went with it. At Penny Street about the Bear and Staff a vast crown of people collected together and the Dragoons rode through them many times which caused great thrutching & brustling among them and many were forced against the sides by the press of the crowd and the windows on both sides the street were broken by people being forced against them. There is mention of one or two being hurt, one ridden by the Dragoon horses. The owner of the meal was guarded out of the town by the soldiers and then the mob followed after and pelted him with mud and stones.

January 31st. At Dolphinholme Factory about 3 weeks ago the gudgeon of the water wheel broke & they were 3 or 4 days in getting a new one made & fixed. The weight of the new one was 540 lbs.

There was never perhaps so much cause to fear a famine or at least a great dearth of corn as at the present period, from the backwardness of last Spring and the unparalled coldness and wetness of the last Summer which caused an universal failure in the crops of corn of all sorts, so that meal at this time has advanced to £3-10s per load. The farmers have thrashed upon the whole more than usual of their crops at this time of the year and sold all the meal that has been made. In Scotland and Ireland there has been but indifferent crops and in America the crop is light owing to the hotness of the summer there. In Canada it is said to be a good crop. The Merchant trade is very bad indeed, they can sell nothing except to loss and the markets are greatly overstocked in the West Indies with British goods. The Cotton trade is also bad at this time both for the manufacturers and the labourers. Many weavers are turned off. The Halter’s trade is very bad and shoemakers have also experienced a great stagnation in their trade.

February 8th. Died about the middle of this week, John Parker of Hathornthwaite aged 93 years. He had been married 61 years and has left a widow nearly as old as himself. He was maintained by the Parish for a great number of years last past.

February 22nd. The Publicans at Lancaster in consequence of the high price of malt and hops thought proper to raise the price of ale from 1 ½ d to 2d per dobbin and from 3d to 4d per pint which displeased their customers so much that they would not drink at all. Three or four men would go into a Public house and call for every one a Dobbin of Ale and when it came would enquire how much the price must be and being answered 2d they told them to take it back and immediately walked out of the house. At one much frequented house during 3 days they did not sell half a dozen dobbins of ale so when people would not drink as usual the Publicans were obliged to drop to the old price again after holding it at 2d per dobbin for 3 days and selling scarce any at all. However I suppose they can scarce afford it at the old price malt being 48/- per load, 24/- per windle and hops £15 to £16 per cwt.

It has been in contemplation for some time by some of the inhabitants of Wyresdale to enter into a subscription and raise a sum of money to buy meal, flour & potatoes & sell the same again to the poor and labouring people within Wyresdale at reduced prices. In Ellel that plan has been carried forward and about £40 subscribed and they have bought meal at the market prices and sold it again to the poor at 6lbs per 1/- that is at the rate of 40/- per load. Potatoes they have sold at 1/- per score. Their regulations are to sell to all who are needful residing within the Township of Ellel whether they belong to them or not. That each person entitled to this charity shall have 3lbs of meal per week so that a man and his wife and 6 children receive 24 lbs of meal per week for which they pay 4/- only which according to this days price would only purchase 11 lbs of meal

Name L S D Name L S D Name L S D
J. F. Cawthorne 5 5 Wm Thompson of Cockerham 1 1 Rob Cardener 1
Rd Hathornthwaite 5 5 John Jackson, Ellel 1 1 Alice Wright 1
Betty Hathornthwaite 1 1 Jas Bleasdale 1 1 Ann Jackson 5
Peggy Hathornthwaite 1 1 Eliz. Drinkall 1 1 Wm Dilworth 5
Thos Thompson 4 4 Jos Whiteside 10 6 Lawrence Pye 15
John Townley 5 5 Ed Bibby servant 1 Rd Pye 5
Sally Townley 1 1 John Tomlinson 10 6 John Brewer 10 6
Thos Townley 1 1 Betty & Margaret Townley 10 6 Rob France 2
Timothy Cragg 1 1 Thos Cragg 2 6 Thos Procter 2
Wm Bamber 1 1 Timothy Cragg 2 6 Wm Procter 1
Wm Holkinson 1 1 Rd Cragg 2 6 Agnes Birkett 1 6
Thos Bateson 2 2 David Cragg 5 6 Thos Richmond 10 6
Parson White of Lancaster 2 2 Rd Hathornthwaite - 2 stewards 5 John Hall 10 6
Parson Thomas of Lancaster 1 1 Jas Taylor 10 6
Mrs Saul of Lancaster 2 2 Jas Gardner 2 6
John Dilworth of Lancaster 1 1 Jennet Garder 1

Total £46-12-6

Note: The total amount of the subscription was about £48.

Peter Brammel and Joshua Bibby having received upwards of £30 by subscription to buy meal and potatoes to sell to the poor in Wyresdale at reduced prices having bought a quantity of meal and potatoes they sold part of it out again at reduced prices viz meal 6lb for 1/- and potatoes 6d for 20lb and disposed of about a load and a half of meal and above a load of potatoes. They are very careful in the distribution of this meal & potatoes though as well as any other township it is sold to old Jack and children only and those who are maintained by the town. Every one entitled to this charity is to have only 3lbs of meal per head for 6d or 6d of potatoes in lieu thereof at 6d per score. About 66 persons received of this allowance today. This allowance is for 1 week and it is agreed that it shall be distributed once a fortnight on the 4th day of the week in the afternoon at the Abbeystead.

Thomas Mason of Forton sold part of his land a few months ago by auction. He has now sold the remainder to wit 2 acres of land and a very good modern built house for £200 and a suit of clothes to Thos Huntington.

March 12th. A fast and prayer day today by order of Government to pray to God that he would be mercifully pleased to keep them to help them to kill most part of the French this year and also keep them to restore the Bourbon family to the throne of France again. It was not much observed in this country.

Edmund Winder has bought an Estate of Land in the field called ___ Hall for £1600 it being about 36 acres of land and a well built place.

The Assizes begun at Lancaster the 25 inst and the Calendar of the Crown prisoners amounts to 69 prisoners a greater number than ever known.

At the end of March most kinds of trade were very bad excepting the Calico weaving which is very brisk again.

At Dolphinholme Factory the wages allowed to the labourers employed in the factory is too small to afford them a maintenance and sometimes a family are out of provisions of any sort for several days and children crying about in the factory for want of meal and falling down of fair hunger. Some people had given several shillings worth of bread amongst them in the factory and Rd Raby the Engineer every time he went into his own house filled his pockets with cheese and bread to give these poor folks in the factory. Headwell the master would not allow them any more wages nor give them bread. They might live without bread, he did, and so might they, he said.

Richard Kerr of the Factory, shopkeeper buys very bad meal, half of it barley, at 74/- or 75/- per load and sells it out at only 2 3/4 lbs for 1/- which amounts to 87/- per load so he gets a very great profit out of these poor people and he being in league with Headwell gets his Bills paid off at the counting House every pay day so that many a poor family receive not a halfpenny, for their bills equal what they are allowed as wages.

April 5th. The assizes at Lancaster ended this week, the list of prisoners 72, of which, 12 were sentenced to death, 14 transported for 7 years, 11 no bill, 13 acquitted, 10 fined and imprisoned, 3 turned Kings evidence & 3 to remain in the house of Correction. It is thought that 10 or 11 will be hanged. There were 46 causes to be tried at this Assizes.

April 12th. As the dearth of provisions is very great at this time perhaps it will not be amiss to say something about it every week, and this week at Dolphinholme Factory it has been agreed that the people employed therein shall be served with meal by Rd Kerr at 4lbs per 1/- and the company to make up the loss and that they shall have rice at 3d per lb of which much is used at this time in making rice porridge. There are many poor families that buy barley flour and bean flour to make bread and upon the whole there is now in this country many a hungry mortal.

On the 19th inst. six men were hanged at Lancaster for forgery and robbing the post boy.

On the 24th was buried at Wyresdale Ellen Cragg daughter of William Cragg of the Abbeystead aged 11 or 12 years.

April 26th. At Lancaster an advertisement was posted on the Town Hall that a great number of the inhabitants had entered into an agreement not to give more than 1/- for a lump of butter, nor suffer their servants and recommended the same to all the inhabitants which hurt the market considerably so that scarce any was sold at 23 o'clock, part being sold at 16d, 15d, 14d and much at 13 1/2 d, but in the afternoon about 2 o'clock it rose again to 14d & 15d, so although a great stagnation was made in the market there was none sold at the price fixed and after the market was over there was scores of people wanted to buy and could get none and many a bit of grumbling there was and scolding and the sellers look it upon than to be very saucy and scornfull and ridiculed the buyers very much and vexed a great many of them so that after the market was over I heard several of the Townspeople say that they had been sauced and abused worse than a shame to see it.

May. On the 15th was married at Lancaster Meeting Thomas Cragg to Betty Kelsall daughter of Wm Kelsall of Dunishaw in Wyresdale. There was 16 invited guests at the marriage and the marriage certificate was signed by 36 witnesses. We dined at the Bear & Staff and paid 18d each for dinner. At night the new married couple went to a cottage house at Greenbank to reside these some time.

Caw Mill wear is to be made up again this summer wood being now felling for that purpose. Joseph Whiteside joining with Tomlinson at the Mill & for the time to come.

June. On the 8th died Molly daughter of Wm Bell of Galgate of a fever.

On the 10th died John Butler, shoemaker, of Galgate of a fever. He will be a very ill missed man.

On the 9th died Joseph Whiteside of Forton late of the Humble Bee nest? in Quernmore, being ill only 5 or 6 days.

There are at this time many folks ill of a violent fever at Galgate and several have died of it. This fever having been about near half a year in this country.

June 27th. Report says that 7 ships are arrived at Lancaster laden with corn. 5 of which are from Liverpool and 2 Dutch Daggers.

July. The fever at Galgate still continues with much violence & many are scarce expected to recover and it is feared that the whole of the inhabitants will have it before it is settled. The has died at Galgate, John Butler, John Welch's daughter, a servant maid, Molly Bell & her husband & Robert Butler's wife. At the Nuttliehurst? a woman has died of the same fever and there are 20 more ill of it at Galgate.

August 5th. John Wilson, Carpenter in Cockerham, son of Wm Wilson died last week aged about 26 or 27 years & has left a widow & 2 children.

August 20th. Was married today Timothy Cragg to Jennet Parkinson, daughter of Richard Parkinson of the Hazleheads.

An estate of land situate at Clifton Hill in Forton belonging to Wm Corless of the New Hollings was sold by Auction to the latter end of this month to John Drinkall of the Castle of Trim in Wyresdale for £1650 is being 26 acres of Land.

September. On the 7th was buried at Wyresdale meeting Agnes Procter wife of Wm Procter, hatter, of the Moorhead aged 58 years, of a decline.

October. On the 10th most of the Cogs in the Cog wheel broke. From the[n] to the 29th two and sometimes three millwrights were employed in repairing the wheel and other machinery in the Mill at 5/- per day and a quart of ale each on the 29th they started the mill again and it is reported to do very well.

November. On the 22nd a cow was burnt in the market place, Lancaster being seised in the shambles as unsound. The butcher was fined £10.

December 12th. Richard went this morning with Robert Mason to Lancaster with two carts and met some carriers from Kirkby Lonsdale by appointment at the pinfold Bairham Lane near Lancaster at 6 this morning with 15 loads of meal which Robert Mason had bought at Kirkby yesterday and which was carted on the night for fear of mobs at Lancaster and elsewhere. Being a badger now is somewhat a dangerous trade.

1801

January. On the night between the 9th and 10th of this month a barn at the Yatehouse in Ellel was burnt down and 24 head of cattle consumed therein. It is supposed to have been wilfully set on fire by some person or persons yet unknown. A large quantity of hay and corn was reduced to ashes. The damage to William Gardner the Tenant is estimated at £350. The Yatehouse Barn was still on fire on the 11th. It is supposed that there was 3000 persons to view the ruins this day.

May 1st. On the 1st Ellen Gibson widow of Richard Gibson of Quernmore dropped down dead on the house floor.

On the 5th was buried at Wyresdale Chapel Richard Pye of the Ouslethorn in Over Wyresdale aged 76 years.

On the 3rd a young man in Cockerham called Danson hanged himself.

On the 10th the yearly town's meeting for the Township of Over Wyresdale was held at Marshaw and the Overseer and Constable Benjamin Raby brought in their accounts. In the last year they have collected in assessments about £620 and of it £99 18s was paid in Constable Rolls. The Church Rate was also paid out the poor rates which was about £20. We found a deal of fault with their accounts and the expenditure of the money. John Pye of the Fellside engages to do the office of Overseer and Constable for this year for £21.

June. On the 18th of this month Samuel Fielden of Lancaster was drowned in attempting to cross the sands from Ulverston to Lancaster.

September 30th. About a month ago the large Ash tree was felled at Lentworth in Overwyresdale. The Bole and measurable limbs amounted to 224 feet. A piece of the Bull end 12 feet long was 80 feet & sold to a Blockmaker on Lancaster at 4/3 per foot, came to £17. William Wilkinson took it to Lancaster on the 15th of this month. It was by a great deal the largest tree in these parts.

October. About the beginning of this month William Carter of Eccleston died. Formerly he was a farmer in Hashaw but had for some years been maintained by the Township of Wyresdale.

On the 16th died at William Caton's in Ellel old Dority Caton, widow of Thomas Caton of Hashaw in Wyresdale. For some years maintained by the Township of Wyresdale.

Also on the 16th died Francis Parkinson of the Brow Top in Quernmore. A poor miserable rich man. Reckoned to be worth £16000.


1810

February. On the 2nd was buried at Wyresdale Meeting, Ann Birkett wife of William Birkett of the Higher Morehead in Wyresdale.

On the 27th was buried at Wyresdale meeting, Ann Jackson of Quernmore Brow Top who died suddenly aged 82 years.

April 7th. Last week died Isaac Jackson commonly called Little Isaac of Marshaw, but lately Whalley aged about 86 years. By his death the farms of Bartholomew Pye and John Harrison go out of lease which have been held by his life a long time.

About the middle of this month died Ellen Greenlah? of Quernmore aged 98 years. The oldest person in these parts.

About the same time Thomas ____ commonly called old Thomas Shirrinton of Quernmore aged 88 years.

On the 23rd died John Morison of Lancaster aged 35 years. For several years noted as the most drunken man and saddest vagabond in all Lancaster.

May. On the 7th. The yearly Town's meeting for the Township of Over Wyresdale was held at Marshaw and was well attended. The accounts brought in by John Pye overseer of the Poor and Constable for the last years were satisfactory. The money expended last year was about £582 of which £107 was for constable rolls, £19 for church rate. He had collected 8 assessments at £68-18-8 each.

At this meeting John Bleasdale was let to Robert Fort at 3/- 4 1/2. Robert Scales to Thos Walmsley, to have 44/- a year for wages besides finding him in clothes. Kitty Townley was taken by Edmund Hall for 2 years, he being to find her in clothes for that time for nothing. Bec Austins daughter taken by Rd Holden for 2 years to find her in clothes and the town to give him 39/- per year. John Swindlehurst taken by Richard Topham for 2 year at £5 per year. The town to find clothes.

On the 10th was married at Lancaster, Joseph Pye son of James Pye of Speight Clough in Wyresdale, weaver, to Agnes Pye of the top of the Emmets in Wyresdale, weaver. At this marriage was 26 persons present 20 of whom were of the name Pye.

On the 2nd was married James Pye son of James Pye of Speightclough in Wyresdale shoemaker to a servant woman at Thos Walmsley's, Lentworth in Wyresdale. A woman it seems of spirit.

On the 12th of this month Wm Carrs of the Thrustle? nest in Nether Wyresdale had his house burned down. Set on fire by sparks blown up the chimney & setting the thatch on fire.

This week died John Salisbury of Nether Wyresdale cotton weaver of a fever.

Also Ann Bamber of Great Eccleston, widow of Thos Bamber, formerly of Catshaw in Over Wyresdale.

July. On the 12th I got up stones in the nook of the mean an old causeway made in former ages. It was about 4 feet wide, the stones 2 or 3 feet square and some of them 2 feet thick. The biggest I met with was 4 feet long, 3 feet wide, and 2 feet thick = 24 feet of stone. It must have been a vast of work to get such stones to the place and as it were to flag with them.

1816

February. On the 6th died at the York retreat, Betty wife of Thomas Cragg of Damas Gill Side in Wyresdale.



Book the second which begins with

1706 July.

September. The beginning of the month a flood almost every day in Wyre.

September 7th. Abundance of rain.

October 16th. Great rain.

December 10th. Abundance of snow – great drifts, violent winds, several sheep lost.

1707

January 3rd. Violent wind then great rain follows spring like weather.

February 5th Most violent blast of wind, rain, hail & snow.

About February 10th. Another blast like a hurricane.

April 8th. Rain then great wind & extreme drought.

May 13th. The weather mostly very hot and vehement drought. 21st The weather vehement dry.

September 1st. Great wind also in 8th

And there follows a lot of reporting of the weather…….